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# 1
Kaplan, Nils Hinrich • Sohrt, Ernestine • Blume, Theresa • Weiler, Markus
Abstract: We used different sensing techniques including time-lapse imagery, electric conductivity and stage measurements to generate a combined dataset of presence and absence of streamflow within a large number of nested sub-catchments in the Attert Catchment, Luxembourg. The first sites of observation were established in 2013 and successively extended to a total number of 182 in 2016 as part of the project “Catchments As Organized Systems” (CAOS, Zehe et al., 2014). Setup for time-lapse imagery measurements was inspired by Gilmore et al. (2013) while the setup for EC-sensor was proposed by Chapin et al. (2014). Temporal resolution ranged from 5 to 15 minutes intervals. Each single dataset was carefully processed and quality controlled before the time interval was homogenized to 30 minutes. The dataset provides valuable information of the dynamics of a meso-scale stream network in space and time. The Attert basin is located in the border region of Luxembourg and Belgium and covers an area of 247 km². The elevation of the catchment ranges from 245 m a.s.l. in Useldange to 549 m a.s.l. in the Ardennes. Climate conditions across the catchment are rather similar in terms of temperature and precipitation. Hydrological regimes are mainly driven by seasonal fluctuations in evapotranspiration causing flow to cease in intermittent reaches during dry periods. The catchment covers three predominant geologies: Slate, Marls and Sandstone. The dataset features data from catchments covering all geological characteristics from single geology to mixed geology. It can be used to test and evaluate hydrologic models, but also for the assessment of the intermittent stream ecosystem in the Attert basin.
Time-lapse Imagery:Dörr Snapshot Mini 5.0 consumer wildlife cameras were used for time-lapse imagery. Time lapse monitoring was realized with the internal software with a temporal resolution of 15 minutes. Cameras were mounted at trees or structures close to the channel. For improved image analysis a gauging plate was installed in the channel. EC-sensors:Onset HOBO Pendant waterproof temperature and light data logger (Model UA-002-64, Onset Computer Corp, Bourne, MA, USA) with modified light sensor to measure electric conductivity were used to monitor electric conductivity (EC). EC values were classified into no-flow situations for EC-values below 25microSi/cm and flow situation for EC-values above 25microSi/cm. Conventional Gauges:Conventional Gauges are divided into two subdatasets. Data from ID values CG1 to CG11 were derived from water level data measured by METER/Decagon CTD pressure transducers in stilling wells. Data from ID values CG 12 to CG 18 were derived from discharge values measured by the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST). TECHNICAL DETAILS OF MEASUREMENT SETUP Time-lapse imagery equipment used:- Dörr Snapshot Mini 5.0- Mounting gear- Cable lock- Wire Lock for SD-security- SD-card 16 GB- Battery pack "Hückmann Fiamm Lead-accumulator FG 10451" EC-measurements:- Onset HOBO Pendant waterproof temperature and light data logger (Model UA-002-64, Onset Computer Corp, Bourne, MA, USA) with modified light sensor to measure electric conductivity- Aluminum housing for shading- Bolts Water level measurements:- METER/Decagon CTD pressure transducers- stilling wells
# 2
Rudenko, Sergei • Schöne, Tilo • Esselborn, Saskia • Neumayer, Karl Hans
Abstract: The data set provides GFZ VER13 orbits of altimetry satellites: ERS-1 (August 1, 1991 - July 5, 1996),ERS-2 (May 13, 1995 - February 27, 2006),Envisat (April 12, 2002 - April 8, 2012),TOPEX/Poseidon (September 23, 1992 - October 8, 2005),Jason-1 (January 13, 2002 - July 5, 2013) andJason-2 (July 5, 2008 - April 5, 2015) derived at the time spans given at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (Potsdam, Germany) within the Sea Level phase 2 project of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative using "Earth Parameter and Orbit System - Orbit Computation (EPOS-OC)" software (Zhu et al., 2004) and the Altimeter Database and processing System (ADS, http://adsc.gfz-potsdam.de/ads/) developed at GFZ. The orbits were computed in the ITRF2014 terrestrial reference frame for all satellites using common, most precise models and standards available and described below. The ERS-1 orbit is computed using satellite laser ranging (SLR) and altimeter crossover data, while the ERS-2 orbit is derived using additionally Precise Range And Range-rate Equipment (PRARE) measurements. The Envisat, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 orbits are based on Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) and SLR observations. For Envisat, altimeter crossover data were used additionally at 44 of 764 orbital arcs with gaps in SLR and DORIS data. The orbit files are available in the Extended Standard Product 3 Orbit Format (SP3-c). Files are gzip-compressed. File names are given as sate_YYYYMMDD_SP3C.gz, where "sate" is the abbreviation (ENVI, ERS1, ERS2, JAS1, JAS2, TOPX) of the satellite name, YYYY stands for 4-digit year, MM for month and DD for day of the beginning of the file. More details on these orbits are provided in Rudenko et al. (2018) to which these orbits are supplementary material.
# 3
Vey, Sibylle • Güntner, Andreas • Wickert, Jens • Blume, Theresa • Thoss, Heiko • (et. al.)
Abstract: We provide data of a case study from the GNSS station Wettzell, Germany (WTZR). This data set contains snow depth derived from GNSS data using reflectometry. It covers a time period from July 1, 2012 to July 1, 2015 and gives the integral snow depth over an area of about 150 by 30 m. The data are daily averages based on daily measurements from 4 different satellites. The GNSS derived snow depth was validated by observations from ultrasonic sensors (US). The detailed description of the processing, the evaluation with US and the discussion of the results is described in Vey et al. (2016). The data are provided in ASCII format with four colums: GNSS data (file Vey-et-al-2016-GNSS_2012_15.txt): (1) year (YEAR) (2) day of the year (DOY) (3) snow depth (SD cm) from GNSS (4) accuracy, root mean square error (RMSE cm) Ultrasonic Sensor data (file Vey-et-al-2016-US_2012_15..txt): (1) year (YEAR) (2) day of the year (DOY) (3) SD_US_pillow (cm) snow depth from the US sensor located above snow pillow (4) SD_US_SPA(cm) snow depth from the US sensor located at the snow pack analyzer
# 4
Geiger, Tobias • Frieler, Katja • Bresch, David N.
Abstract: Tropical cyclones (TCs) pose a major risk to societies worldwide. While data on observed cyclones tracks (location of the center) and wind speeds is publicly available these data sets do not contain information about the spatial extent of the storm and people or assets exposed. Here, we apply a simplified wind field model to estimate all areas (grid cells) exposed to wind speeds above 34 knots. Based on available spatially-explicit data on population densities and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) we estimate 1) the number of people and 2) the sum of assets exposed to above tropical storm force wind speeds for temporal changes in historical distribution of population and assets (TCE-hist) and assuming fixed 2015 patterns (TCE-2015). The associated spatially-explicit exposure data (TCE-DAT) covers the period 1950 to 2015. It is considered key information to 1) assess the contribution of climatological versus socio-economic drivers of changes in exposure to tropical cyclones, 2) estimate changes in vulnerability from the difference in exposure and reported damages and calibrate associated damage functions, and 3) build improved exposure-based predictors to estimate higher-level societal impacts such as long-term effects on GDP, employment, or migration. We validate the adequateness of our methodology by comparing our exposure estimate to estimated exposure obtained from reported wind fields available since 1988 for the United States. We expect that the free availability of the underlying model and TCE-DAT will make research on tropical cyclone risks more accessible to non-experts and stakeholders. Files included in the zip folder: (1) TCE-DAT_single_events_historical.zip: Zipped archive containing 2707 files with exposed population and assets by grid cell using historical socio-economic exposure estimates.(2) TCE-DAT_single_events_2015.zip: Zipped archive containing 2713 files with exposed population and assets by grid cell using fixed socio-economic exposure at 2015 values.(3) Data-description_TCE-DAT_2017.008.pdf: full description of the data set including information on data sources and the description of variables/ data columns Additional information on each TC event in the zipped archive (e.g. TC name, NatCatSERVICE_ID, genesis_basin, aggregated exposure estimates by country) are available in the exposure data sets aggregated on country-event level (see Geiger et al., 2017; http://doi.org/10.5880/pik.2017.005 for details).
# 5
Geiger, Tobias • Frieler, Katja • Bresch, David N.
Abstract: Tropical cyclones (TCs) pose a major risk to societies worldwide. While data on observed cyclones tracks (location of the center) and wind speeds is publicly available these data sets do not contain information on the spatial extent of the storm and people or assets exposed. Here, we provide a collection of tropical cyclone exposure data (TCE-DAT) derived with the help of spatially-explicit data on population densities and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), also available at http://doi.org/10.5880/pik.2017.007. Up to now, this collection contains: 1) A global data set of tropical cyclone exposure accumulated to the country/event level http://doi.org/10.5880/pik.2017.0052) A global data set of spatially-explicit tropical cyclone exposure available for all TC events since 1950 http://doi.org/10.5880/pik.2017.008 TCE-DAT is considered key information to 1) assess the contribution of climatological versus socioeconomic drivers of changes in exposure to tropical cyclones, 2) estimate changes in vulnerability from the difference in exposure and reported damages and calibrate associated damage functions, and 3) build improved exposure-based predictors to estimate higher-level societal impacts such as long-term effects on GDP, employment, or migration. We expect that the free availability of the underlying model and TCE-DAT will make research on tropical cyclone risks more accessible to non-experts and stakeholders.
# 6
van den Ende, Martijn
Abstract: Intergranular pressure solution creep is an important deformation mechanism in the Earth’s crust. The phenomenon has been frequently studied and several analytical models have been proposed that describe its constitutive behavior. These models require assumptions regarding the geometry of the aggregate and the grain size distribution in order to solve for the contact stresses, and often neglect shear tractions. Furthermore, analytical models tend to overestimate experimental compaction rates at low porosities, an observation for which the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we present a conceptually simple, 3D Discrete Element Method (DEM) approach for simulating intergranular pressure solution creep that explicitly models individual grains, relaxing many of the assumptions that are required by analytical models. The DEM model is validated against experiments by direct comparison of macroscopic sample compaction rates. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the overall DEM compaction rate to the grain size and applied stress is tested. The effects of the interparticle friction and of a distributed grain size on macroscopic strain rates are subsequently investigated. Overall, we find that the DEM model is capable of reproducing realistic compaction behavior, and that the strain rates produced by the model are in good agreement with uniaxial compaction experiments. Characteristic features, such as the dependence of the strain rate on grain size and applied stress, as predicted by analytical models, are also observed in the simulations. DEM results show that interparticle friction and a distributed grain size affect the compaction rates by less than half an order of magnitude. The zip-file Van-den-Ende_2017.018.zip contains several folders with raw data from the laboratory experiments, output data from Discrete Element Method simulations, and Python 2.7 script files that read and process these data. All data are stored in ASCII format.
# 7
Trippetta, Fabio • Carpenter, Brett M • Mollo, Silvio • Scuderi, Marco M. • Scarlato, Piergiorgio • (et. al.)
Abstract: Here we report the raw data of the physical properties of carbonate samples collected along the Monte Maggio normal Fault (MMF), a regional structure (length ~10 km and displacement ~500 m) located within the active system of the Apennines (Italy). In particular, we report results coming from large cores (100 mm in diameter and up to 20 cm long) drilled perpendicular to the fault plane made of Calcare Massiccio (massive limestone) and Bugarone fm (limestone with 8.3 % of clay). From these large cores, we obtained smaller cores, 38 mm in diameter both parallel and perpendicular to the fault plane, that have been used for experiments. We have divided the rock samples in four categories following the fault architecture. The four structural domains of the fault are:1) the hangingwall (HW) made of Bugarone fm that is still preserved in some portions of the fault, 2) a Cemented Cataclasite (CC) and 3) a Fault Breccia (FB) that characterize the cataclastic damage zones and 4) the correspondent undeformed protolith of the footwall block made of Calcare Massiccio. Raw data reported here are those used for drawing Figures 5, 6, 8 and 9 of the paper “Physical and transport property variations within carbonate- bearing fault zones: Insights from the Monte Maggio Fault (central Italy)”, http://doi.org/10.1002/ 2017GC007097 by Trippetta et al. Dataset_Fig05.txt reports P- and S-wave velocities (in km/s) of the described samples at pressure from 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) up to 100 MPa at ambient temperature in dry conditions and the corresponding Vp/Vs ratio. Experiments have been performed by using the permeameter at the HP-HT Laboratory of experimental Volcanology and Geophysics at INGV (Rome). Dataset_Fig06.txt reports permeability data (in m^2) on the same type of samples of fig05 for the same range of confining pressure at ambient temperature. Pore pressure values athletes each confining pressure step are indicated in the file. Data have been again acquired with the permeameter. Dataset_Fig08.txt reports P-wave velocity data (in km/s) vs depth (in m), recorded on the portion that crossed the Calare Massiccio fm of three boreholes drilled in the Apennines: Varoni 1, Monte Civitello 1 and Daniel1. Data have been obtained by digitalizing each pdf file of the boreholes mentioned above, that are available at http://unmig.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/videpi/videpi.asp. Once digitalized, respect to the original pdf file, velocity data have been simply converted from um/f to km/s. Dataset_Fig09.txt reports values of the maximum, minimum and average values of Critical fault nucleation length (in m) at each corresponding depth (in m) and applied confining pressure (in MPa). Critical nucleation lengths have been calculated by using the equations described in the text of the Trippetta et al paper and by using the elastic parameters calculated from data reported here. Data on earthquakes-depth distribution of the 2009 L'Aquila sequence can be found on Chiaraluce et al. (2011).
# 8
Kennett, Douglas J. • Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M. • Aquino, Valorie V. • Lechleitner, Franziska • Ridley, Harriet E. • (et. al.)
Abstract: The proxy record is derived from stalagmite YOK-I from the Yok Balum Cave, Belize. Stalagmite YOK-I was collected in June 2006, ca. 160 m from the western cave entrance. Carbonate was actively precipitating on the tip of this 606.9-mm-long stalagmite when it was collected. The stable isotope climate record covers only the upper 415 mm, while the lower stalagmite section is less suitable for stable isotope studies and was not included in this investigation. Over 4,200 δ18O and δ13C measurements were performed on the upper 415 mm of YOK-I and dated between 40 BC and 2006 AD. The samples were continuously milled at 0.1 mm increments and, depending on growth rate changes in YOK-I, the temporal resolution of the isotopic data fluctuates from 0.01 and 3.68 yrs/0.1 mm, with an average resolution of 0.49 yrs/0.1 mm. Earlier versions of the dataset have been published at the NOAA palaeoclimate data server using a slightly different chronology (Kennett et al., Science 2012, DOI:10.1126/science.1226299). In the study of Ridley et al. (Nat Geo 2015, DOI:10.1038/ngeo2353), we have tuned the chronology of YOK-I with the more precise one of the stalagmite YOK-G. These new data is provided as version 2 in the files YOK-I_d18O_v2.csv (for δ18O) and YOK-I_d13C_v2.csv (for δ13C), consisting of 4047 isotope measurements. Kernel filtering was applied to resample the time series to equidistant annual resolution (Smirnov et al, Sci Rep XXX, DOI: XXX), covering the time span from 15 BC to 2005 AD, resulting in 2021 data values. These filtered versions of the data are provided as files YOK-I_d18O_kernelfiltered.csv and YOK-I_d13C_kernelfiltered.csv. In all files, the first column consists of the age (in yr AD) and the second column (separated from the first column by a semicolon) is the corresponding isotope value (in permil VPDB). The data is presented as four .csv files in a .zip folder.
# 9
Frick, Daniel A. • Schuessler, Jan A. • Sommer, Michael • von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm
Abstract: Silicon is a beneficial element for many plants, and is deposited in plant tissue as amorphous bio-opal (phytoliths). The biochemical processes of uptake and precipitation induce isotope fractionation: the mass-dependent shift in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of silicon. At the bulk scale, the silicon isotope composition reported as δ30Si span from -2 to +6 ‰. To further constrain these variations, at the scale of individual phytolith fragments we applied in situ femtosecond laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (fsLA-MC-ICP-MS) to a set of 7 natural phytolith samples. Two phytoliths samples (Norway spruce Picea abies and European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) were extracted from the organic-rich topsoil horizon (O) of two studies sites in Germany (Beerenbusch, close to village Rheinsberg and Wildmooswald, in the southern Black Forest). The other five phytolith samples (bushgrass Calamagrostis epigejos, common reed Phragmites australis, common horsetail Equisetum arvense, annual and perennial rough horsetail Equisetum hyemale) were separated from plant materials. The individual phytolith fragments were analysed by fsLA-MC-ICP-MS and Si isotope results are reported in the δ-notation (delta) as permil deviation relative to NIST SRM610, which is isotopically indistinguishable from the reference material NBS28 (quartz NIST SRM8546 alias NBS28, δ29Si ≡ 0 and δ30Si ≡ 0). Raw data processing and background corrections were made according to the protocol described in Schuessler and von Blanckenburg (2014) that also involves application of several data rejection/acceptance criteria. Of these, the most important ones are that A) only 30/28Si and 29/28Si ratios are used for the calculation which deviate less than 3 standard deviation from the mean and B) only results which follow the mass-depended terrestrial fractionation line in a three-isotope-plot of δ29Si vs. δ30Si within analytical uncertainties and C) have a mass bias drift between the two bracketing standards of less than 0.30 ‰ in 30/28Si are accepted and reported in this study. Detailed description of the sample origin, preparation steps, and the measurement protocol can be found in Frick, D. A.; Schuessler, J. A.; Sommer, M.; von Blanckenburg, F. (2018): Laser ablation in situ silicon stable isotope analysis of phytoliths. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research. https://doi.org/10.1111/ggr.12243. With this supplement we aim to provide a comprehensive dataset for in situ stable silicon isotope composition of individual phytolith fragments.
# 10
Kelder, Nick A. • Sant, Karin • van Dijk, Gijs A. • Lathouwers, Ymke Z. • Dekkers, Mark J. • (et. al.)
Abstract: This dataset contains the paleomagnetic supplementary material to the article Kelder et al. (subm.), which presents a magnetostratigraphic correlation of Late Miocene lacustrine sediments based on multi-polarity greigite. The multi-polarity is visible in most thermal paleomagnetic results (Zijderveld diagrams) by antipodal high and medium temperature components, while only one magnetic component was visible in the alternating field demagnetization diagrams. Based on this complex behavior, a tailored demagnetization approach was developed to allow for reliable magnetostratigraphic dating of lacustrine sediments. The dataset includes demagnetization data from four drill cores located nearby Paks, Hungary. They were not oriented, meaning that only the inclination could be used for paleomagnetism. The measurements took place at the Paleomagnetic Laboratory Fort Hoofddijk in Utrecht University, The Netherlands. For details about the methodology the reader is referred to the methodology in Kelder et al. (subm). Three types of data are distinguished:• Thermal demagnetization results (.th files)• Alternating field demagnetization results (.af files).• Interpreted magnetic vectors for demagnetization files (.dir files) The .th, .af. and .dir files can be viewed with Notepad or similar programs, and analyzed via the Open Source platform Paleomagnetism.org (Koymans et al., 2016). The .dir files only exist for the cores PAET-30 and PAET-34, because these were interpreted in detail, while the material of the other cores (PAET-26, 27) were mainly used for rock magnetic purposes. Finally, an overview of the data files, abbreviations and sample codes is provided in the data description file.
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