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# 1
Heidbach, Oliver • Rajabi, Mojtaba • Reiter, Karsten • Ziegler, Moritz • WSM Team
Abstract: The World Stress Map (WSM) database is a global compilation of information on the crustal present-day stress field. It is a collaborative project between academia and industry that aims to characterize the stress pattern and to understand the stress sources. It commenced in 1986 as a project of the International Lithosphere Program under the leadership of Mary-Lou Zoback. From 1995-2008 it was a project of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities headed first by Karl Fuchs and then by Friedemann Wenzel. Since 2009 the WSM is maintained at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and since 2012 the WSM is a member of the ICSU World Data System. All stress information is analysed and compiled in a standardized format and quality-ranked for reliability and comparability on a global scale. The WSM database release 2016 contains 42,870 data records within the upper 40 km of the Earth’s crust. The data are provided in three formats: Excel-file (wsm2016.xlsx), comma separated fields (wsm2016.csv) and with a zipped google Earth input file (wsm2016_google.zip). Data records with reliable A-C quality are displayed in the World Stress Map (doi:10.5880/WSM.2016.002). Further detailed information on the WSM quality ranking scheme, guidelines for the various stress indicators, and software for stress map generation and the stress pattern analysis is available at www.world-stress-map.org.
# 2
Heidbach, Oliver • Ziegler, Moritz
Abstract: The World Stress Map (WSM) is the global compilation of information on the present-day stress field in the Earth's crust. The current WSM database release 2016 (Heidbach et al., 2016) has 42,870 data records, but the data are unevenly distributed and clustered.To analyse the wave-length of the crustal stress pattern of the orientation of maximum horizontal stress Shmax, we use so-called smoothed stress maps that show the mean SHmax orientation on regular grids. The mean SHmax orientation is estimated with the Matlab® script stress2grid (Ziegler and Heidbach, 2017) which is based on the statistics of bi-polar data. The script provides two different approaches to calculate the mean SHmax orientation on regular grids.The first is using a constant search radius around the grid point and computes the mean SHmax orientation if sufficient data records are within the given fixed search radius. This can result in mean SHmax orientations with a high standard deviation of the individual mean SHmax orientation and it may hide local perturbations. Thus, the mean SHmax orientation is not necessarily reliable for a local stress field analysis.The second approach is using variable search radii and determines the search radius for which the standard deviation of the mean SHmax orientation is below a user-defined threshold. This approach delivers the mean SHmax orientations with a user-defined degree of reliability. It resolves local stress perturbations and is not available in areas with no data or conflicting information that result in a large standard deviation.The search radius starts with 1000 km and is decreased in 100 km steps down to 100 km. Mean SHmax orientation is taken and plotted here for the largest search radius when the standard deviation of the mean SHmax orientation at the individual grid points is smaller than 25°. For the estimation of the mean Shmax we selected the following data: A-C quality data without PBE flag.Furthermore, only data records located on the same tectonic plate as the grid point is used to calculate the mean SHmax orientation. Minimum number of data records within the search radius is n = 5 and data records within a distance of d ≤ 200 km to the nearest plate boundary are not used. Plate boundaries are taken from the global model PB2002 from Bird (2003).Furthermore, a distance and data quality weight is applied; the distance threshold is set to 10% of the search radius. We provide the resulting smoothed stress data for four global grids (0.2°, 0.5°, 1°, and 2° grid spacing) using two fixed search radii (250 and 500 km) and the approach with variable search radii. Details on the format of the data files with the mean SHmax orientation are provided in the 2018-002_readme file.
# 3
Heidbach, Oliver • Custodio, Susana • Kingdon, Andrew • Mariucci, Maria Theresa • Montone, Paola • (et. al.)
Abstract: The Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe 2016 displays 5011 A-C quality stress data records of the upper 40 km of the Earth’s crust from the WSM database release 2016 (Heidbach et al, 2016, http://doi.org/10.5880/WSM.2016.001). Focal mechanism solutions determined as being potentially unreliable (labelled as Possible Plate Boundary Events in the database) are not displayed. Further detailed information on the WSM quality ranking scheme, guidelines for the various stress indicators, and software for stress map generation and the stress pattern analysis is available at www.world-stress-map.org.
The World Stress Map (WSM) is a global compilation of information on the crustal present-day stress field. It is a collaborative project between academia and industry that aims to characterize the stress pattern and to understand the stress sources. It commenced in 1986 as a project of the International Lithosphere Program under the leadership of Mary-Lou Zoback. From 1995-2008 it was a project of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities headed first by Karl Fuchs and then by Friedemann Wenzel. Since 2009 the WSM is maintained at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and since 2012 the WSM is a member of the ICSU World Data System. All stress information is analysed and compiled in a standardized format and quality-ranked for reliability and comparability on a global scale.
# 4
Reiter, Karsten • Heidbach, Oliver • Müller, Birgit • Reinecker, John • Röckel, Thomas
Abstract: Die Spannungskarte Deutschland zeigt die Orientierung der gegenwärtigen maximalen horizontalen Spannung (SHmax) in der Erdkruste. Unter der Annahme, dass die vertikale Spannung (SV) eine Hauptspannung ist, legt SHmax die Orientierung des 3D Spannungstensors festgelegt; die minimale horizontale Spannung Shmin ist entsprechend senkrecht zu SHmax. In der Spannungskarte sind die SHmax Orientierungen als Linien unterschiedlicher Länge dargestellt. Die Länge der Linie ist dabei ein Maß für die Datenqualität und das Symbol zeigt die Methode und die Farbe das Spannungsregime an. Daten mit E-Qualität sind ohne weitere Information als Punkte in der Karte dargestellt. Die Spannungsdaten sind frei zugänglich und Bestandteil des World Stress Map (WSM) Projektes. Weitere Informationen zu den Daten und Kriterien der Datenanalyse und Qualitätszuordnung befinden sich auf der WSM Internetseite unter http://www.world-stress-map.org. The English version of the World Stress Map Germany is available via http://doi.org/10.5880/WSM.Germany2016_en.
# 5
Heidbach, Oliver • Rajabi, Mojtaba • Reiter, Karsten • Ziegler, Moritz
Abstract: The World Stress Map (WSM) is a global compilation of information on the crustal present-day stress field. It is a collaborative project between academia and industry that aims to characterize the stress pattern and to understand the stress sources. It commenced in 1986 as a project of the International Lithosphere Program under the leadership of Mary-Lou Zoback. From 1995-2008 it was a project of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities headed first by Karl Fuchs and then by Friedemann Wenzel. Since 2009 the WSM is maintained at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and since 2012 the WSM is a member of the ICSU World Data System. All stress information is analysed and compiled in a standardized format and quality-ranked for reliability and comparability on a global scale. The stress map displays A-C quality stress data records of the upper 40 km of the Earth’s crust from the WSM database release 2016 (doi:10.5880/WSM.2016.001). Focal mechanism solutions determined as being potentially unreliable (labelled as Possible Plate Boundary Events in the database) are not displayed. Further detailed information on the WSM quality ranking scheme, guidelines for the various stress indicators, and software for stress map generation and the stress pattern analysis is available at http://www.world-stress-map.org.
# 6
Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
Abstract: Mit der Hochwasserschadensdatenbank HOWAS 21 wurde von Wissenschaftlern des Deutschen GeoForschungsZentrums GFZ eine fundierte Datengrundlage zur Erforschung von Hochwasserschäden geschaffen. Diese Daten dienen zum besseren Verständnis der Entstehung von Hochwasserschäden und zur Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit von Vorsorgemaßnahmen. Die Abschätzung ökonomischer Schäden ist eine wichtige Komponente bei Entscheidungen über Hochwasserschutzmaßnahmen auf der Basis von Kosten-Nutzen-Analysen. Im Vergleich zu anderen Bereichen der Hydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft gibt es allerdings nur wenige Daten über Hochwasserschäden in Deutschland. Daher bauten die Wissenschaftler des Potsdamer Helmholtz-Zentrums GFZ die Datenbank HOWAS 21 im Rahmen des BMBF-geförderten Programms "Risikomanagement extremer Hochwasserereignisse" (RIMAX) auf Basis wissenschaftlicher Ergebnisse auf. Neben den aufgetretenen monetären Schäden z.B. an Gebäuden, Hausrat oder Betriebseinrichtung und auf Flächen sind in HOWAS 21 auch Daten zur Ereigniseinwirkung am Objekt, zum geschädigten Objekt selbst und zur Schadensminderung festgehalten. Jeder Schadensfall wird außerdem einem übergeordneten Hochwasserereignis und einer Erhebungskampagne (Metadaten) zugeordnet. Die Attribute in HOWAS 21 basieren auf Katalogen, die durch eine mehrstufige Experten-Befragung für jeden Sektor festgelegt wurden.
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