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# 1
Bentz, Stephan • Kwiatek, Grzegorz • Martínez-Garzón, Patricia • Bohnhoff, Marco • Dresen, Georg
Abstract: The here provided data are part of a broader analysis of past and present stimulation projects, revealing that the temporal evolution and growth of maximum observed moment magnitudes may be linked directly to the injected fluid volume and hydraulic energy. Analyzed projects include the most prominent European Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) projects in Basel, Switzerland (BAS) and Soultz-sous-Forêts (STZ), France. In Soultz, three different stimulations over the course of 10 years were performed in different wells and different depths. Therefore, we differentiate between the injections in 1993 (STZ93), 2000 (STZ00), and in 2003 (STZ03). We also included the deepest EGS Project to date (St1), located in Helsinki, Finland. Furthermore, we included the fluid-injection experiment from the German super deep scientific drilling hole (KTB), two Australian EGS projects, located at Paralana (Para) and the 2003 Cooper Basin (CBN) injection, as well as the EGS project near Pohang, South Korea. Finally, we also considered a single well injection period at the Berlín geothermal field (BGF), El Salvador, representing the only hydrothermal site considered here. For each project the cumulative volume injected is provided along with the applied hydraulic energy, maximum observed seismic moment, cumulative seismic moment, and injection efficiency as tab separated ASCII files with the .csv extension. All stimulation files are combined into a single .zip archive. More details on processing steps and references herein can be found in the accompanying data description.
# 2
Beekman, Fred • Willingshofer, Ernst • Sokoutis, Dimitrios • Pueyo, Emilio Luis • Casas, Antonio M. • (et. al.)
Abstract: This dataset provides friction data from ring-shear tests (RST) on an iron powder – quartz sand mixture (weight ratio 1:3). This material is used in particular as marker material in analogue experiments that are monitored with CT-scanners in the Tectonic Laboratory (TecLab) at Utrecht University (NL) (Pueyo et al., 2017; 2018). The material has been characterized by means of internal friction coefficients µ and cohesions C as a remote service by the Helmholtz Laboratory for Tectonic Modelling (HelTec) at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam in the framework of the EPOS (European Plate Observing System) Transnational Access (TNA) call of the Thematic Core Service (TCS) Multi-scale Laboratories (MSL) in 2017. According to our analysis the material behaves as a Mohr-Coulomb material characterized by a linear failure envelope. Peak, dynamic and reactivation friction coefficients are µP = 0.65, µD = 0.53, and µR = 0.62, respectively. Cohesions C are in the range of 70 to 100 Pa. A minor rate-weakening of ~3% per ten-fold change in shear velocity v is evident.
# 3
Bär, Kristian • Reinsch, Thomas • Bott, Judith
Abstract: Petrophysical properties are key to populate numerical models of subsurface process simulations and for the interpretation of many geophysical exploration methods. They are characteristic for specific rock types and may vary considerably as a response to subsurface conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure). Hence, the quality of process simulations and geophysical data interpretation critically depend on the knowledge of in-situ physical properties that have been measured for a specific rock unit. Inquiries for rock property values for a specific site might become a very time-consuming challenge given that such data are (1) spread across diverse publications and compilations, (2) heterogeneous in quality and (3) continuously being acquired in different laboratories worldwide. One important quality factor for the usability of measured petrophysical properties is the availability of corresponding metadata such as the sample location, petrography, stratigraphy, or the measuring method, conditions and authorship. The open-access database presented here aims at providing easily accessible, peer-reviewed information on physical rock properties in one single compilation. As it has been developed within the scope of the EC funded project IMAGE (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration, EU grant agreement No. 608553), the database mainly contains information relevant for geothermal exploration and reservoir characterization, namely hydraulic, thermophysical and mechanical properties and, in addition, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The uniqueness of this database emerges from its coverage and metadata structure. Each measured value is complemented by the corresponding sample location, petrographic description, chronostratigraphic age and original citation. The original stratigraphic and petrographic descriptions are transferred to standardized catalogues following a hierarchical structure ensuring intercomparability for statistical analysis. In addition, information on the experimental set-up (methods) and the measurement conditions are given for quality control. Thus, rock properties can directly be related to in-situ conditions to derive specific parameters relevant for modelling the subsurface or interpreting geophysical data.
# 4
Kück, Jochem • Conze, Ronald • Harms, Ulrich
Abstract: This data collection provides digital access to data and publications of the KTB (German Continental Deep Drilling Program) project. KTB was a very detailed, long-term Earth science investigation on the structure, dynamics and formation of the Central European crust in Northeastern Bavaria, Germany (Harms, Kück 2016). With geophysical sounding and ultra-deep drilling it elucidated a crustal block at the border of a micro-continental collision zones amalgamated during the Caledonian and Variscan orogenies. Major research themes were: i) the nature of geophysical structures and phenomena, ii) the crustal stress field and the brittle-ductile transition, iii) the thermal structure of the crust, iv) crustal fluids and transport processes, and v) structure and evolution of the central European Variscan basement. KTB started in 1982 with pre-site selection studies and scientific objective definition followed in 1985 by site selection studies including shallow boreholes. From 1987 to 1990 a pilot borehole of 4000 m depth was drilled and fluid tests and borehole studies were conducted. In 1990 started drilling of a so-called superdeep main borehole of 9101 m depth that was reached in 1994. Again, the final drilling phase was concluded with large-scale fluid and seismic experiments. The rocks drilled comprise metamorphic series of mafic volcanic, volcano-clastics as well as minor gabbroic to ultramafic rocks that are intercalated with leucocratic meta-sedimentary gneisses. They represent most likely a deeply subducted accretionary wedge mélange with a complex P-T-t history. The undisturbed bottom hole temperature is ~265°C. Among the outstanding results are the following: (1) A continuous profile of the complete stress tensor was obtained.(2) Several lines of evidence indicate that KTB reached the present-day brittle-ductile transition.(3) The drilled crustal segment is distinguished by large amounts of free fluids down to mid-crustal levels.(4) The role of post-orogenic brittle deformation had been grossly underestimated.(5) Steep-angle seismic reflection surveys depict the deformation pattern of the upper crust.(6) High-resolution seismic images of the crust can be obtained with a newly developed technique of true-amplitude prestack depth migration.(7) The electrical behavior of the crust is determined by secondary graphite (+/-sulfides) in shear zones. (after Emmermann und Lauterjung (1997)
The data are ordered according to disciplines, wells and working groups and currently available via the original KTB site (https://data.icdp-online.org/sites/ktb/welcome.html). The DOI-referenced data publication of KTB data is in progress. Scientific disciplines: Geology, Petrology, Tectonics- Microscopy- Lithological description of cores- Lithological description of cuttings- Tectonic elements Geochemistry- Gas analysis- XRF, XRD analysis- Infrared Spectrometry- IC, ICP-AES Petrophysics- Density- Porosity- Electrical resistivity- Natural gamma-ray activity- Inner surface- Permeability- Relaxation- Magnetic susceptibility- Ultrasonic seismics- Thermal conductivity Rock Mechanics- Compressive strength- Tensile strength Technical drilling parameterFluid/Hydraulic experimentsHydrofrac/Seismic experiments
# 5
Steinhausen, Max • Schröter, Kai • Lüdtke, Stefan • Drews, Martin
Abstract: The European exposure data for BN-FLEMO models contains three datasets that can be used with BN-FLEMO models for the estimation of flood loss. The dataset contains: (1) European asset map with unit area values of residential and commercial buildings in EURO per square meter based on reconstruction cost and NUTS-3 regions or national GDP per capita. The values are mapped on CORINE land cover classes for urban areas (111 and 112). (2) Residential building areas in Europe with building area sizes in square meter for each NUTS-3 region. The building area sizes were calculated based on the building geometries extracted from the OSM database. (3) Flood experience in Europe with geometries of historic flood events (1985- 2015) with start date of the events. This dataset can be used to calculate the number of past flood events in an area.
# 6
Albrecht, Torsten
Abstract: This dataset contains PISM simulation results (http://www.pism-docs.org) of the Antarctic Ice Sheet based on code release pik-holocene-gl-rebound: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1199066 . With the help of added python scripts, Fig. 3 and other model related extended data figures can be reproduced as in the journal publication: Kingslake, Scherer, Albrecht et al. (2018, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0208-x).
PISM is the open-source Parallel Ice Sheet Model developed mainly at UAF, USA and PIK, Germany.Plottings scripts for figures in 'plot_scripts' access the uploaded PISM results (netCDF data) and save them to 'final_figures'. The bash script 'preprocessing.sh' downloads and converts forcing input data for the plots based on https://github.com/pism/pism-ais. See README.md for information on experiment (ensemble numbers) and information on access of input data.
# 7
Billing, Maik • Thonicke, Kirsten • von Bloh, Werner • Sakschewski, Boris
Abstract: LPJmL-FIT is process- and trait-based vegetation model. It is a subversion of the model LPJmL simulating patches of competing individual trees with flexible functional traits and empirically derived relations between these traits. Trait composition, productivity and stability of a forest are a result of environmental and competitive filtering. A detailed description of LPJmL-FIT (basic features and differences to LPJmL) is given by Sakschewski et al. (Sakschewski et al., 2015, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12870). LPJmL-FIT was originally developed for tropical forests and has been adapted to European forests by Thonicke et al. (2020). The data covers southern and central Europe (29.5°N – 62°N, 11°W – 36°O) on a spatial resolution of 0.5° covering the years 1901-2013. Tree height, leaf and stem traits (specific leaf area, wood density, leaf longevity; aggregated), individual traits of simulated trees, vegetation distribution (foliage projected cover, FPC), vegetation carbon and fire carbon emissions are given on an annual basis. Gross primary productivity is provided monthly. Tree height and leaf and stem traits are biomass weighted. For evaluation of the dataset R- and MATLAB-scripts are provided.An overview and description of all variables are found in the file description.
# 8
Ulbricht, Damian • Klump, Jens • Conze, Ronald
Abstract: These files generate data catalogue pages from ISO19139, GMCD-DIF and Datacite metadata by using XSLT stylesheet transformation on XML metadata. This supplement contains four files: * The file "datasetoverview.xslt" is the conversion stylesheet in XSLT 1.0. It is a minified version of the stylesheet we use at GFZ to produce Hypertext Markup Language for presentation in internet browsers.* The file "datasetoverview.css" is the cascading style sheet with the layout definitions.* The file "10.1594.GFZ.SDDB.1409.xml" contains example data from the eSciDoc repository. At the document start there is a reference to the conversion stylesheet to allow an in-browser conversion.* A "README.txt" file.
# 9
Dielforder, Armin • Hetzel, Ralf • Oncken, Onno
Abstract: The data are the source data for Figures 2, 3, and 4 in the paper "Megathrust shear force controls mountain height at convergent plate margins" by Dielforder, Hetzel, and Oncken (2020). Details on the calculation of the data are given in the methods section of this paper. The archive "2020-002_Dielforder-et-al_shear_stress_envelopes.zip" includes ten csv-files entitled "n_shear_stress_envelope.csv", where n is a number from 1 to 10 and refers to the margin transects studied in the paper (for labeling see below). The files provide the source data for the ten shear stress envelopes shown in Figure 2. In each file, the values in the first, second, and third column are depth (m), shear stress (MPa), and the one standard deviation of the shear stress (MPa), respectively. The archive "2020-002_Dielforder-et-al_shear_force_solutions.zip" contains one csv-file including 100,000 model solutions for the megathrust shear force (TN m-1). Columns 1 to 10 contain the solutions for the respective margin transects. The archive "2020-002_Dielforder-et-al_force_balance_solutions.zip" includes ten csv-files entitled "n_force_balance_solutions.csv" following the same labeling scheme as above. The values in the first, second, and third column are the 100,000 model solutions for the tectonically supported elevation TSE (m), the shear-force component required to support the submarine margin topography F_SMT (TN m-1), and the shear-force component available to support subaerial mountain height [delta]F_s (TN m-1), respectively. For the Himalayas (10_force_balance_solutions.csv), there are only values in the first column, because the Himalayas have no submarine margin topography. The 100,000 model solutions were used to calculate the mean values and one standard deviation shown in Figures 3 and 4 and listed in Table 1 and Extended Data Table 3. Labeling: 1, Northern Cascadia; 2, 3, and 4, Andes at 23º S, 34º S, and 36º S, respectively; 5, Northern Sumatra; 6, Kamchatka; 7, Japan Trench; 8, Nankai Trough; 9, Northern Hikurangi; 10, Himalayas. The references listed below provide the input parameters used to calculate the shear stress envelopes, F_s, TSE, F_SMT and [delta]Fs.
# 10
Baes, Marzieh • Sobolev, Stephan • Gerya, Taras • Brune, Sascha
Abstract: The data are the numerical modeling results to investigate plume-induced subduction initation on which the figures of the paper "Plume-induced subduction initiation: single- or multi-slab subduction?" by Baes, Sobolev, Gerya and Brune are based. Detailed description on how they are obtained is given in that article (Baes et al., 2020). The naming of the files is based on the number of figures in the paper. Each zipped file contains input files (init.t3c and mode.t3c) and output files (*.vtr).
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