13 documents found in 210ms
# 1
Tattaris, Maria • Reynolds, Matthew • Pietragalla, Julian • Molero, Gemma • Cossani, Mariano C. • (et. al.)
Abstract: High resolution remote sensing (RS) of light spectra reflected from plants allows for non-intrusive monitoring of physiological characteristics such as canopy temperature, hydration status, and pigment composition, as well as permitting estimates of agronomic traits such as biomass and yield. While satellite mounted RS platforms have proven efficient at measuring some of these characteristics at a field scale, their spatial resolution is too low for accurate data retrieval at plot level in a plant breeding context. While ground based remote sensing is used for predicting physiological and agronomic traits at a plot scale, temporal variations of environmental variables such as air temperature can introduce confounding factors especially when applied to large trials. Low level airborne remote sensing platform overcomes these restrictions, allowing for fast, non-destructive screening of plant physiological properties over large areas, with enough resolution to obtain information at plot level while being able to measure several hundred plots with one take. Sampling was performed with a helium filled tethered blimp and an 8 rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Instruments mounted on the UAV alternate between a 3 channel multispectral imaging spectrometer and a thermal camera. A 12 channel multispectral camera was fixed on the tethered blimp. Flight altitude, between 50-100 m, was a function of the spatial resolution of the camera, wind speed and target plot lengths; ranging from 0.50-8.5 m. Multiple flights were conducted during the 2012 and 2013 cycles over experimental wheat trials. Images were corrected, geo-referenced where possible and processed to determine a data point for each plot within the trial. Aerial images collected were used to calculate a wide range of indices relating to temperature, vegetation, pigments, water status, and biomass. Indices derived from the airborne imagery data were validated by equivalent indices collected at ground level. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at plot level proved to be similar or even better to the equivalent correlations using data collected from instruments on the ground. Results give confidence to the application of such airborne remote sensing techniques for high throughput phenotyping, in particular the ability to evaluate the level of stress and performance of thousands of genetic resources under extreme heat and drought conditions.
# 2
Bareth, Georg • Aasen, Helge • Bendig, Juliane • Gnyp, Martin Leon • Bolten, Andreas • (et. al.)
Abstract: The non-destructive monitoring of crop growth status with field-based or tractor-based multi- or hyperspectral sensors is a common practice in precision agriculture. The demand for flexible, easy to use, and field scale systems in super-high resolution (<20 cm) or on single plant scale is given to provide in-field variability of crop growth status for management purposes. Satellite and airborne systems are usually not able to provide the spatial and temporal resolution for such purposes within a low-cost approach. The developments in the area of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) seem to fill exactly that niche. In this contribution, we introduce two hyperspectral frame cameras weighing less than 1 kg which can be mounted to low-weight UAVs (<3 kg). The first results of a campaign in June 2013 are presented and the derived spectra from the hyperspectral images are compared to related spectra collected with a portable spectroradiometer. The results are promising.
# 3
Bendig, Juliane • Bareth, Georg
Abstract: The workshop on UAV-based Remote Sensing Methods for Monitoring Vegetation took place at the University of Cologne in September 2013 and was organized within the activities of the ISPRS Working Group VII/5 “Methods for Change Detection and Process Modelling” of the ISPRS Technical Commission VII “Thematic Processing, Modelling, and Analysis of Remotely Sensed Data”. The Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Plant Sciences (IBG-2), of the Forschungszentrum Jülich as well as the following research projects supported and co-organized the workshop: The two Collaborative Research Centres, the CRC/TR32 “Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Systems: Monitoring, Modelling, and Data Assimilation” and the CRC806 “Our way to Europe: Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary” which are funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The CROP.SENSe.net research network which analyses plant phenotypes to enhance efficiency in crop breeding and decision making in crop management. The project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and by the Ziel 2-Programm NRW 2007–2013 “Regionale Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Beschäftigung (EFRE)” by the Ministry for Innovation, Science and Research (MIWF) of the state North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and European Union Funds for regional development (EFRE) (005-1103-0018). The International Center for Agro-Informatics and Sustainable Development (ICASD), which is a cooperation of the China Agricultural University and the University of Cologne. The publication of the Special Issue "UAV-Based Remote Sensing Methods for Modeling, Mapping, and Monitoring Vegetation and Agricultural Crops" of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292) and the Special Issue on "Spatial Data Acquisition, Handling, and Analysis in Agro-Geoinformatics" of the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964) emerged in the context of this workshop.
# 4
Calderon, Rocio • Navas Cortes, Juan A. • Lucena, Juan C. • Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.
Abstract: Verticillium wilt (VW) caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb, is the most limiting disease in all traditional olive-growing regions worldwide. This pathogen colonizes the vascular system of plants, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal imagery, chlorophyll fluorescence, structural and physiological indices (xanthophyll, chlorophyll a+b, carotenoids and B/G/R indices) calculated from multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as early indicators of water stress caused by VW infection and severity. The study was conducted in two olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae. Time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery were conducted with 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in three consecutive years and related to VW severity at the time of the flights. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, field measurements conducted at leaf and tree crown levels showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) across VW severity levels, identifying VW-infected trees at early stages of the disease. At leaf level, the reduction in G caused by VW infection was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. The airborne flights enabled the early detection of VW by using canopy-level image-derived airborne Tc-Ta, Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) calculated from the thermal imagery, blue / green / red ratios (B/BG/BR indices) and chlorophyll fluorescence, confirming the results obtained in the field. Airborne Tc-Ta showed rising temperatures with a significant increase of ~2K at low VW severity levels. Early stages of disease development could be differentiated based on CWSI increase as VW developed, obtaining a strong correlation with G (R2=0.83, P<0.001). Likewise, the canopy-level chlorophyll fluorescence dropped at high VW severity levels, showing a significant increase as disease progressed at early VW severity levels. These results demonstrate the viability of early detection of V. dahliae infection and discrimination of VW severity levels using remote sensing. Indicators based on crown temperature, CWSI, and visible ratios B/BG/BR as well as fluorescence were effective in detecting VW at early stages of disease development. In affected plants, the structural indices, PRI, chlorophyll and carotenoid indices, and the R/G ratio were good indicators to assess the damage caused by the disease.
# 5
Gnyp, Martin Leon • Miao, Yuxin • Yuan, Fei • Yu, Kang • Yao, Yinkun • (et. al.)
Abstract: Aboveground biomass (AGB) plays an important role in agriculture for assessing the production of foods, forage and renewable energy. Hyperspectral field measurements are an efficient method for nondestructive monitoring of AGB. Recent studies have confirmed the benefit of using different types of reflectance such as raw reflectance and its derivatives in the non-destructive methods. The objective of this study was to improve the estimation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) AGB with Optimum Multiple Narrow Band Reflectance (OMNBR) models based on raw reflectance (RR) and its first derivative of reflectance (FDR). Experiments with different nitrogen rates were conducted in experimental and farmers fields from 2007 through 2009 in Jiansanjiang, Northeast China. Hyperspectral data and AGB were collected at two growth stages - tillering and stem elongation. OMNBR models with 1-4 bands based on RR and FDR were performed. The results indicated that FDR-based OMNBR models were more accurate than RR-based ones, with the highest improvement found in FDR-based 1-2 band models. At the tillering stage, red and near infrared bands were selected, while the near infrared and shortwave infrared bands were applied at the stem elongation stage. Across both stages, FDR-based OMNBR models performed better than RR-based OMNBR models. These findings imply that derivative analysis may help to reduce the background influence of soil and water as well as the effects of illumination variations at early growth stages. More studies are needed to further explore the potential of derivative analysis.
# 6
Drauschke, Martin • Bartelsen, Jan • Reidelstuerz, Patrick
Abstract: In this paper, we describe two experiments regarding the monitoring of a test site in the Bavarian Forest National Park using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and we show their results. In the first experiment, we show that it is possible to relatively orient the RGB images acquired by a small UAV in power glider configuration without any flight stabilisation and without integrated navigation system (INS) initial values. This enables a 3D scene reconstruction, i.e., we obtain a point cloud showing distinctive 3D points. A much denser point cloud showing trees with branches can be derived from dense image matching. In the second experiment, we demonstrate how multispectral imagery can be interpreted on demand, i.e., without producing an ortho-mosaic, but using reliable features and a powerful classifier. With our algorithm, we follow up the aim to detect bark beetle attack in an early infection stage in Sitka spruce, Picea sitchensis, in the Bavarian Forest National Park.
# 7
Kooistra, Lammert • Suomalainen, Juha • Iqbal, Shahzad • Franke, Jappe • Wenting, Philip • (et. al.)
Abstract: To investigate the opportunities of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in operational crop monitoring, we have developed a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system (<2 kg) suitable to be mounted on small UAVs. It is composed of an octocopter UAV-platform with a pushbroom hyperspectral mapping system consisting of a spectrograph, an industrial camera functioning as frame grabber, storage device, and computer, a separate INS and finally a photogrammetric camera. The system is able to produce georeferenced and georectified hyperspectral data cubes in the 450-950 nm spectral range at 10-100 cm resolution. The system is tested in an agronomic experiment for a potato crop on a 12 ha experimental field in the south of the Netherlands. In the experiment UAV-based hyperspectral images were acquired on a weekly basis together with field data on chlorophyll as indicator for the nitrogen situation of the crop and LAI as indicator for biomass status. Initially, the quality aspects of the developed light-weight hyperspectral mapping system will be presented with regard to its radiometric and geometric quality. Next we would like to present the relations between sensor derived spectral measurements and crop status variables for a time-series of measurements over the growing season. In addition, the spatial variation of crop characteristics within the field can be adopted for variable rate application of fertilizers within the field. The outcome of the experiments should guide the operational use of UAV based systems in precision agriculture systems.
# 8
Neeland, Heiko • Kraft, Martin
Abstract: This work is about the mechanical construction and the measurement system of the ThuenoCopter. Both, the mechanical construction and the measurement system (sensors, 32 bit microcontroller board and image analyzing system) of the ThuenoCopter will be presented and first measurements of the low-cost image analyzing system will be shown. Climate changes and limited natural resources are the challenges for agriculture in a world where the population is still increasing and farm land may be decreasing for the next 50 years. On the one hand plant breeders need tools to measure many parameters like crop cover, crop temperature, etc. which are important for an optimal growth of plants. On the other hand improved conservative production methods for a sustainable agriculture can only be developed and tested practically if these parameters can be measured reliably and the relationship between these parameters and the plant growth is well known. The composition of the soil, the climate conditions, the supply with water and fertilizer and the use of plant protection chemicals determine the growth of every crop during its vegetation period. In order to have a UAV-based method for contactless crop inspection during the vegetation period - from tillage to harvesting - the ThuenoCopter has been developed on the base of an Oktokopter by Mikrokopter. The ThuenoCopter has a height of approx. 50 cm and its diameter is approx. 1 m. While flying along predefined routes, the measurement system of the ThuenoCopter measures the crop temperature, the air humidity and temperature, the global radiation, and it takes photos which are processed onboard in near real-time with the aim of detecting rows and weeds. The ThuenoCopter has been developed and optimized in weight and robustness (mechanical and electrical construction). A low-cost image analyzing system has been brought into operation. First measurements will be shown and discussed. Afterwards an outlook for improvements and further research activities is given.
# 9
Eling, Christian • Klingbeil, Lasse • Kuhlmann, Heiner
Abstract: A georeferencing of the collected data is required for many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based remote sensing applications in the fields of surveying, precision farming, infrastructure inspection or geography. This georeferencing can generally be done indirectly using ground control points, or directly using an on-board sensor system. Since an indirect georeferencing is very time consuming and also not available in real time many users would prefer a direct georeferencing. However, UAVs do mostly only have a C/A code GPS and a low-cost IMU on board. Even if this sensor combination enables a rough navigation of the UAV it does not allow for a precise direct georeferencing. Thus, the development of a precise direct georeferencing system for lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles is currently in great demand. In this contribution a new developed direct georeferencing system for lightweight UAVs is presented, which is designed to (1) enable a precise position and attitude determination (position accuracy σ<5cm, attitude accuracy σ<1deg), (2) to be applicable on lightweight UAVs and (3) to be real-time capable for sampling rates >10 Hz. Generally, the system combines a dual-frequency GPS receiver, a tactical grade IMU, a single-frequency GPS receiver and a real-time processing unit on one board. Both, the RTK-GPS (real-time kinematic) and the attitude determination software are in-house developed and show good performances in first flight tests.
# 10
Retzlaff, Rebecca • Molitor, Daniel • Behr, Marc • Wantzenrieder, Tom • Hoffmann, Lucien • (et. al.)
Abstract: Four soil management modalities (quadruplicate, 2010-2011) were assayed to determine their impacts on grapevine physiology and wine quality: Wolff mixture (1), natural greening (2), rotating harrow with winter greening (3) and natural greening with disturbance in dry conditions (4). The chlorophyll content was monitored monthly in 2011 and 2012 between June and September by optical measurement using the Dualex 4 (Force A, Paris, France) device. The field work in August was accomplished by a multi-angular flight campaign using a quadrocopter (md4-1000, microdrones GmbH) equipped with a six band VIS/NIR multispectral camera (MiniMCA-6). Bidirectional canopy reflectance was measured at three angles. In 2012, four flight campaigns were carried out throughout the grapevine season and compared to in-situ measurements of physiological factors. It was found that all four soil management modalities could be significantly discriminated using the MiniMCA-6 data. Discrimination was better for oblique viewing directions compared with nadir view, since the former configuration allows capturing a bigger canopy fraction in the image compared to nadir direction. Furthermore, leaf sampling and measurements for the calibration data set were not carried out in the upper leaf layer, which is almost exclusively visible in nadir view. A similar effect of the viewing directions was found for the quantification of chlorophyll content, and other leaf/canopy properties using stepwise multivariate regression: also here spectral data from the oblique directions led to most accurate regression models.
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