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# 1
Lorenz, Henning • Rosberg, Jan-Erik • Juhlin, Christopher • Bjelm, Leif • Almqvist, Bjarne • (et. al.)
Abstract: This is an updated version of Lorenz et al. (2015) and includes corrected locations of the boreholes and the core depths (for details see Lorenz et al., 2019,http://doi.org/10.2312/ICDP.5054.002), and newly provides access to the core scans in high resolution (uncompressed jpg format). The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project focuses on mountain building processes in a major mid-Paleozoic orogen in western Scandinavia and its comparison with modern analogues. The transport and emplacement of subduction-related highgrade continent-ocean transition (COT) complexes onto the Baltoscandian platform and their influence on the underlying allochthons and basement will be studied in a section provided by two fully cored 2.5 km deep drill holes. This operational report concerns the first drill hole, COSC-1 (ICDP 5054-1-A), drilled from early May to late August 2014. COSC-1 is located in the vicinity of the abandoned Fröå mine, close to the town of Åre in Jämtland, Sweden and was planned to sample a thick section of the Seve Nappe and to penetrate its basal thrust zone into the underlying lower grade metamorphosed allochthon. Despite substantial technical problems, the drill hole reached 2495.8 m driller's depth and nearly 100 % core recovery was achieved. Surprising was the homogeneity of the Seve Nappe rocks, the unexpected thickness of its basal thrust zone (> 500 m) and that the drill hole, therefore, did not penetrate the bottom of the thrust zone. However, lower grade metasedimentary rocks were encountered in the lowermost part of the drill hole together with tens of metres thick mylonites that are, unexpectedly, rich in large garnets. The drill core was documented on-site and XRF scanned off site. During various stages of the drilling, the borehole was documented by comprehensive downhole logging. The operational report provides an overview over the COSC-1 operations from drilling preparations to the sampling party and describes the available datasets and sample material.
# 2
Walk, Janek • Stauch, Georg • Reyers, Mark • Bartz, Melanie • Brückner, Helmut • (et. al.)
Abstract: This file contains the results of a spatio-temporal frequency analysis of extreme precipitation events for the coastal Atacama Desert (20°S-26°S, 69.5°W-71°W). Daily accumulated total precipitation data between 1982 and 2017 from a regional WRF model for the Atacama Desert is used as input data. Mean annual precipitation, the number of events exceeding specific threshold values in precipitation, coefficients of determination for the logarithmic regression analyses, expected precipitation for given recurrence intervals, and expected recurrence intervals for given precipitation events are given as output. The spatial resolution is 10 km and the output is stored in a .csv table.
# 3
Bindi, Dino • Zaccarelli, Riccardo • Strollo, Angelo • Di Giacomo, Domenico
Abstract: In Bindi et al. (2019) a harmonized local magnitude scale across Europe has been derived using data disseminated by network operators through the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA). This data set contains regionalized non-parametric attenuation tables, attenuation corrections to the parametric model and station corrections for both non-parametric and parametric models for more than 2000 stations in Europe. Regionalization has been performed considering six different regions covering Europe and the polygons defining them are also provided. Data are subject to updates that can be triggered by the availability of new and substantial input data (reviewed earthquake catalogues and/or new waveforms). Each update will be released with a new version of the data. The data are provided in ASCII format (.csv).
# 4
Geiger, Tobias • Frieler, Katja
Abstract: Version history:This data are a new version of Geiger et al (2017, http:doi.org/10.5880/PIK.2017.003). Please use this updated version of this dataset which contains the following correction of errors in the original dataset: The linear interpolation in GDP per capita for Aruba (ABW) between observations in 2005 and SSP2 projections in 2010 was replaced by observed GDP per capita values for the years 2006-2009, as the SSP2 projection for Aruba turned out to be incorrect. As a result of this, the national GDP per capita and GDP timeseries for Aruba between 2006 and 2009 is different from the previous version. We here provide three different economic time series that amend or combine various existing time series for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GDP per capita, and population to create consistent and continuous economic time series between 1850 and 2009 for up to 195 countries. All data, including the data description are included in a zip folder (2018-010_GDP_1850-2009_Data_v2.zip): (1) A continuous table of global income data (in 1990 Geary-Khamis $) based on the Maddison Project data base (MPD) for 160 individual countries and 3 groups of countries from 1850-2010: Maddison_Project_data_completed_1850-2010.csv. (2) A continuous table of global income data (in 2005 PPP $, PPP = purchasing power parity) for 195 countries based on a merged and harmonized dataset between MPD and Penn World Tables (PWT, version v8.1) from 1850-2009, and additionally extended using PWT v9.0 and World Development Indicators (WDI), that is consistent with future GDP per capita projections from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs): GDP-per-capita-national_PPP2005_SSP-harmonized_1850-2009_v2.csv. (3) A continuous table of global GDP data (in 2005 PPP $) for 195 countries from 1850-2009 based on the second income data set multiplied by country population data, again consistent with future SSP GDP projections: GDP-national_PPP2005_SSP-harmonized_1850-2009_v2.csv. These data are supplemented by a masking table indicating MPD original data and amended data based on current country definitions (Maddison_data_availability_masked_1850-2010.csv) and a file with PPP conversion factors used in this study (PPP_conversion_factors_PPP1990-PPP2005.csv). We use various interpolation and extrapolation methods to handle missing data and discuss the advantages and limitations of our methodology. Despite known shortcomings this data set aims to provide valuable input, e.g., for climate impact research in order to consistently analyze economic impacts from pre-industrial times to the distant future. More information about data sources and data format description is given in the data description file (2018-010_Data-Description-GDP_1850-2009_v2.pdf).
# 5
Pijnenburg, Ronald • Verberne, Berend • Hangx, Suzanne • Spiers, Christopher
Abstract: Pore pressure reduction in sandstone reservoirs generally leads to small elastic plus inelastic strains. These small strains (0.1 – 1.0% in total) may lead to surface subsidence and induced seismicity. In current geomechanical models, the inelastic component is usually neglected, though its contribution to stress-strain behaviour is poorly constrained. To help bridge this gap, we performed deviatoric and hydrostatic stress-cycling experiments on Slochteren sandstone samples from the seismogenic Groningen gas field in the Netherlands. We explored in-situ conditions of temperature (T = 100°C) and pore fluid chemistry, porosities of 13 to 26% and effective confining pressures (≤ 320 MPa) and differential stresses (≤ 135 MPa) covering and exceeding those relevant to producing fields. The findings of our work are outlined in the corresponding paper. The data presented here are the measured mechanical tabular data and microstructural data (stitched mosaic of backscatter electron images) provided as uncompressed jpg images. In addition, for one sample we include chemical element maps obtained through Electron Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX).
# 6
Isabell Schmidt
Abstract: The dataset provides area-size data on raw-material-polygons - currently for internal use only.
# 7
Kwiatek, Grzegorz • Saarno, Tero • Ader, Thomas • Bluemle, Felix • Bohnhoff, Marco • (et. al.)
Abstract: The dataset is supplementary material to Kwiatek et al. (2019, Science Advances). The dataset is a refined seismic catalog acquired during the hydraulic stimulation of the future geothermal sites located in Espoo, Finland. There, the injection well, OTN-3, was drilled down to 6.1 km-depth into Precambrian crystalline rocks. Well OTN-3 was deviated 45° from vertical and an open hole section at the bottom was divided into several injection intervals. A total of 18,159 m3 of fresh water was pumped into crystal-line rocks during 49 days in June- and July, 2018. The stimulation was monitored in near-real time using (1) a 12-level seismometer array at 2.20-2.65 km depth in an observation well located ~10 m from OTN3 and (2) a 12-station network installed in 0.3-1.15 km deep bore-holes surrounding the project site. On completion of stimulation it the catalog contained 8452 event detections overall, and 6152 confirmed earthquakes located in the vicinity of the project site (epicentral distance from the well head of OTN-3 <5 km). These were recorded in a time period lasting 59 days: 49 days of active stimulation campaign and the 10 days following completion. The initial industrial seismic catalog of 6150 earthquakes was manually reprocessed. The P- and S-wave arrivals of larger seismic events with M>0.5 were all manually verified, and, if necessary, refined. Earthquakes with sufficient number of phases and seemingly anomalous hypocenter depths (e.g. very shallow or very deep) were manually revised as well. The hypocenter locations were calculated using the Equivalent differential time method and optimized with an Adaptive Simulated Annealing algorithm. The updated catalog contained 4,580 earthquakes that occurred at hypocenter depths 4.5-7.0 km, in the vicinity of the stimulation section of OTN-3. To increase the precision of their locations, the selected 2155 earthquakes with at least 10 P-wave and 4 S-wave picks were relocated using the double-difference relocation technique. The relocation uncertainties were estimated using bootstrap resampling technique. The relocation reduced the relative precision of hypocenter determination to approx. 66 m and 27 m for 95% and 68% of relocated earthquakes. The final relocated catalog that constitutes the here published contained 1,977 earthquakes (91% of the originally selected events).
# 8
König, Rolf • Schreiner, Patrick • Dahle, Christoph
Abstract: As a convenience to users who wish to use a replacement value for C(2,0) of GFZ's GRACE/GRACE-FO RL06 GSM products, a monthly GFZ C(2,0) estimate time series is provided. These estimates are obtained from the analysis of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data to the following five geodetic satellites: LAGEOS-1 and 2, Starlette, Stella and Ajisai. Starting from March 2012, the LARES satellite is added so that six geodetic satellites are included. The individual satellites are combined on normal equation level using relative weights which are based on a variance component estimation. Gravity field coefficients up to degree and order 5 plus coefficients C(6,1) and S(6,1) have been simultaneously solved together with all other (non-gravity) parameters. The background models used in the SLR analysis is consistent with the GFZ GRACE/GRACE-FO RL06 processing, including the use of the same Atmosphere-Ocean De-aliasing product AOD1B RL06. IMPORTANT REMARKS: It is advised to use these estimates to replace the C(2,0) values from the GFZ RL06 GSM files. These estimates are not intended to be used with the GRACE RL05 or earlier products. This data set is regularly updated in order to extend the time series on an operational basis. As long as the version number has not changed, all previously available data records have not been changed! See line 'UPDATE HISTORY' in the header of the data file for details about the current time span and version. SPECIAL NOTES: C(2,0) estimates are provided continuously for each month. However, the SLR data was processed in 7-day batches aligned to GPS weeks. Several weekly SLR normal equations were then accumulated to obtain a monthly solution; GPS weeks covering two calendar months were assigned to that calendar month where the majority of days within the week belong to. Thus, the beginning date for these 'monthly' solutions does not necessarily match the first day of a calendar month, but will be within a few days of that corresponding date. Moreover, in most cases, a different number of days was used for the SLR solution than for the corresponding GRACE/GRACE-FO solution. For particular periods, the GRACE/GRACE-FO solutions might span significantly less than one month or cover more than one calendar month. In these cases, a specially dedicated SLR estimate was generated which is based on approximately the same interval so that the epoch of the SLR estimate is close to the epoch of the GRACE/GRACE-FO solution. To distinguish the different cases of C(2,0) estimates mentioned above (monthly vs. specially dedicated) and to easily recognize whether a C(2,0) estimate matches an existing GRACE/GRACE-FO solution, the following flags are appended to each data record:- ' m': C(2,0) estimate represents a monthly solution for a month where no GRACE/ GRACE-FO solution is available.- 'Gm': C(2,0) estimate represents a monthly solution and a corresponding GRACE/ GRACE-FO solution is available.- 'G*': C(2,0) estimate is specially dedicated for a GRACE/GRACE-FO solution as described above; the effective period of data used is additionally provided by a string '<yymmdd>_<YYMMDD>'.
# 9
Dahle, Christoph • Murböck, Michael
Abstract: Post-processed GRACE/GRACE-FO spherical harmonic coefficients of GFZ RL06 Level-2 GSM products representing an estimate of Earth's gravity field variations during the specified timespan. Post-processing steps comprise: (1) subtraction of a long-term mean field; (2) optionally, decorrelation and smoothing with VDK filter (anisotropic filter taking the actual error covariance information of the underlying GSM coefficients into account, see Horvath et al. (2018)); (3) replacement of coefficient C20 and its uncertainty by values estimated from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR); (4) subtraction of linear trend caused by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) as provided by a numerical model; (5) insertion of coefficients of degree 1; and (6) removal of estimated signal with 161 days period. These coefficients represent signals caused by water mass redistribution over the continents and in the oceans. These post-processed GRACE/GRACE-FO GSM products are denoted as Level-2B products. There are multiple variants of Level-2B products available that differ by the characteristics of the anisotropic filter applied. These variants are distinguishable by the following strings in the product file names: - 'NFIL': Level-2B product is not filtered- 'VDK2': Level-2B product is filtered with VDK2- 'VDK3': Level-2B product is filtered with VDK3- 'VDK5': Level-2B product is filtered with VDK5 The individual data sets and models used during the post-processing steps mentioned above are provided as well (in the aux_data folder): - 'GRAVIS-2B_2002095-2016247_GFZOP_0600_NFIL_0001.gz': Long-term mean field calculated as unweighted average of the 156 available GFZ RL06 GSM products in the period from 2002/04 up to and including 2016/08.- 'GFZ_RL06_C20_SLR.dat': C20 time series from SLR (http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.GRAVIS_06_C20_SLR)- 'GRAVIS-2B_GIA_ICE5G_VILMA.gz': Model for subtraction of linear trend caused by GIA- 'GRAVIS-2B_DEG1_v01.dat': Degree-1 time series Detailed information about the product is provided in the header of the data file.
# 10
Reyer, Christopher • Chang, Jinfeng • Chen, Min • Forrest, Matt • François, Louis • (et. al.)
Abstract: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for advanced estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a unique opportunity to consider interactions between climate impacts across sectors. ISIMIP2b is the second simulation round of the second phase of ISIMIP. ISIMIP2b considers impacts on different sectors at the global and regional scales: water, fisheries and marine ecosystems, energy supply and demand, forests, biomes, agriculture, agro-economic modeling, terrestrial biodiversity, permafrost, coastal infrastructure, health and lakes. ISIMIP2b simulations focus on separating the impacts and quantifying the pure climate change effects of historical warming (1861-2005) compared to pre-industrial reference levels (1661-1860); and on quantifying the future (2006-2099) and extended future (2006-2299) impact projections accounting for low (RCP2.6), mid-high (RCP6.0) and high (RCP8.5) greenhouse gas emissions, assuming either constant (year 2005) or dynamic population, land and water use and -management, economic development, bioenergy demand, and other societal factors. The scientific rationale for the scenario design is documented in Frieler et al. (2017). The ISIMIP2b bias-corrected observational climate input data (Lange, 2018; Frieler et al., 2017) consists of an updated version of the observational dataset EWEMBI at daily temporal and 0.5° spatial resolution, which better represents the CMIP5 GCM ensemble in terms of both spatial model resolution and equilibrium climate sensitivity. The bias correction methods (Lange, 2018; Frieler et al., 2017; Lange, 2016) were applied to CMIP5 output of GDFL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LP and MIROC5. Access to the input data for the impact models, and further information on bias correction methods, is provided through a central ISIMIP archive (see https://www.isimip.org/gettingstarted/isimip2b-bias-correction). This entry refers to the ISIMIP2b simulation data from eight global vegetation (biomes) models:CARAIBCLM4.5,DLEM,LPJmL,ORCHIDEE,VEGAS,VISIT,LPJ-GUESS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) simulation data is under continuous review and improvement, and updates are thus likely to happen. All changes and caveats are documented under https://www.isimip.org/outputdata/output-data-changelog/ (ISIMIP Changelog) and https://www.isimip.org/outputdata/dois-isimip-data-sets/ (ISIMIP DOI publications).----------------------------------------------------------------------------
The ISIMIP2b biomes outputs are based on simulations from 8 global vegetation (biomes) models (see listing) according to the ISIMIP2b protocol (https://www.isimip.org/protocol/#isimip2b). The biomes models simulate biogeochemical processes, biogeography and ecosystem dynamics of natural vegetation and managed lands based on soil, climate and land-use information. A more detailed description of the models and model-specific amendments of the protocol are available here: https://www.isimip.org/impactmodels/
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