12 documents found in 308ms
# 1
Ritter, Oliver • Muñoz, Gerard • Weckmann, Ute • Klose, Reinhard • Rettig, Stefan • (et. al.)
Abstract: Magnetotellurics (MT) is a passive geophysical method which uses natural variations of electromagnetic fields generated by global lightning discharges and ionospheric current systems. Since it is impossible to control these source fields, signal-to-noise ratios can be poor, particularly in presence of cultural electromagnetic noise such as power lines, railways, anti-corrosion currents in gas pipelines, etc. The Remote Reference (RR) technique is an effective way to improve magnetotelluric data quality by referencing the locally recorded electromagnetic fields to simultaneously collected, undisturbed fields at a remote reference site. Finding and maintaining such a reference site during a field campaign is expensive and time consuming. The permanent reference site in Wittstock is operated by the Geo-Electromagnetics working group of the GFZ within the framework of the Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam and offers high quality magnetic field recordings for RR processing free of charge for the EM community.A permanent magnetotelluric (MT) remote reference station is located in an urban forest near the city of Wittstock, in north-eastern Germany (Eydam and Muñoz, 2011). It is equipped with two S.P.A.M. Mk IV data loggers and three sets of magnetometers working in different frequency ranges. The highest frequency data is recorded using Metronix MFS07 induction coils with a sampling frequency of 6.25 kHz. The high frequency data is recorded in quasi-continuous segments, with intervals of data being collected for 10 minutes at every hour. The intermediate, broad band magnetic field data are recorded continuously using Metronix MFS06 induction coils at 250 Hz sampling frequency. Finally, long period data is recorded using a 3-component Geomagnet Fluxgate magnetometer with 5 Hz sampling rate. For completeness, electric fields are also recorded continuously at the highest frequency.The data are organized and available as daily folders. Data files are in EMERALD format (Ritter et al., 1998), which is also described in this document. We also provide computer code and example data demonstrating how to read these data files. The tools are provided as FORTRAN, C and C++ source codes and MATLAB scripts.
# 2
Heikkilä, Ulla • von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm
Abstract: The determination of exposure ages, erosion rates, or terrigenous fluxes into the oceans with meteoric cosmogenic 10Be or 10Be/9Be ratios requires knowledge of the depositional fluxes of this nuclide (Willenbring and von Blanckenburg, 2010). The spatial distribution of these fluxes depends on stratospheric production, solar and paleomagnetic modulation, and atmospheric restribution. To allow for the estimation of such fluxes at a given site, and to enable the GIS-based calculation of such fluxes that integrate over large spatial areas (river basins, ocean basins) we provide global maps and excel sheets interpreted to present the average Holocene 10Be fluxes and an estimate of their uncertainty as modeled by atmospheric distribution models (Heikkilä et al., 2013, Heikkilä et al., 2013, Heikkilä and Smith, 2013).
# 3
Reinsch, Thomas • Blöcher Guido • Kranz, Stefan
Abstract: This data is documented by the Scientific Technical Report Data 15/02 (http://dx.doi.org/10.2312/GFZ.b103-15021). Both, the data and the report, are supplements to the publication Blöcher et al. (2015), accessible via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2015.07.008. From 2011-06-01 until 2013-12-31, the measurement and control system at the Groß Schönebeck research platform acquired data from several circulation experiments. Different data values were recorded at a sampling interval of 1 s. Relevant data for understanding and analyzing the hydraulic situation of the system were resampled to a 1 minute interval. From the resampled dataset, additional parameters were derived. Furthermore, if parameters were considered to be essential, but the measurement of these parameters was erroneous, some data were reprocessed. All relevant data and processing steps performed on the data are described within this report. Data described within this report can be accessed via http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.b103-15021.1. The presented data was acquired during different research projects by the staff of the International Centre for Geothermal Research as well as Section 4.1 Reservoirtechnologies at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences.
# 4
Möller, Fabian • Martens, Sonja • Liebscher, Axel • Streibel, Martin
Abstract: Dataset of the Back-production Test at the CO2 Storage Pilot Site Ketzin, Germany
# 5
Möller, Fabian • Liebscher, Axel • Martens, Sonja • Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia • Kühn, Michael
Abstract: The pilot site Ketzin is the longest-operating European onshore CO2 storage site and the only one in operation in Germany. Since the beginning of the storage activity at the end of June 2008, more than 56.000 tons of CO2 were successfully injected until December2011. CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer. It consists of 630 m to 650 m deep sandstone units of the Stuttgart Formation of Upper Triassic age. They were deposited in a fluvial environment. A sequence of about 165 m of overlaying mudstones and anhydrites is sealing the storage complex and act as a caprock. The research and development programme at Ketzin is among the most extensive worldwide in the context of geological CO2 storage. Research activities have produced a broad data base and knowledge concerning the storage complex at Ketzin as well as generic cognition This data publication compiles and reviews the operational data recorded at the Ketzin pilot site for 2013 (injection data: CO2 mass flow, temperatures, pressures, flow rate, etc.).
# 6
Vey, Sibylle • Güntner, Andreas • Wickert, Jens • Blume, Theresa • Ramatschi, Markus
Abstract: We provide data of a case study from the GNSS station Sutherland, South Africa (SUTM). This data set contains soil moisture derived from GNSS data using reflectometry. It covers a time period from January 1, 2008 to September 1, 2014 and gives the integral soil moisture over an area of 60 by 60 m for the uppermost surface (max. down to 10 cm. depth) The data are daily averages based on daily measurements from 6 different satellites. The GNSS derived soil moisture was validated by Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) observations. The detailed description of the processing, the evaluation with TDR and the discussion of the results is described in Vey et al. (2015).The data are provided in ASCII format with four colums: (1) year (YEAR) (2) day of the year (DOY) (3) volumetric soil moisture as average over all satellite tracks (SM Vol %) (4) accuracy, root mean square error of soil moisture from a single satellite track compared to the mean of all satellites (RMSE Vol %).
# 7
Boike, Julia • Elger, Kirsten • Brunke, Melanie • Hinzman, Larry D.
Abstract: Schematic overview of a typical terrestrial and shallow-marine permafrost landscape during summer and winter. Permafrost is defined as ground that remains continuously at or below 0°C for at least two consecutive years; some 24% of the land surface in the northern hemisphere is classified as permafrost. This schematic figure (summer) pictures a terrestrial and shallow marine permafrost system. A permafrost landscape is characterized by its large heterogeneity with morphological permafrost-related features such as polygonal patterned ground with underlying ice wedges, thaw ponds, thermokarst lakes, and wetland areas. During winter, the terrestrial landscape is covered with snow, and water bodies and the ocean are typically covered with ice.The last pictures shows schematically the fluxes (not scaled) that occur between the terrestrial and marine environment and atmosphere.
# 8
Ullah, Shahid • Abdrakhmatov, Kanat • Sadykova, Alla • Ibragimov, Roman • Ishuk, Anatoly • (et. al.)
Abstract: Area Source model for Central AsiaThe area sources for Central Asia within the EMCA model are defined by mainly considering the pattern of crustal seismicity down to 50 km depth. Although tectonic and geological information, such as the position and strike distribution of known faults, have also been taken into account when available. Large area sources (see, for example source_id 1, 2, 5, 45 and 52, source ids are identified by parameter “source_id” in the related shapefile) are defined where the seismicity is scarce and there are no tectonic or geological features that would justify a further subdivision. Smaller area sources (e.g., source_id values 36 and 53) have been designed where the seismicity can be assigned to known fault zones. In order to obtain a robust estimation of the necessary parameters for PSHA derived by the statistical analysis of the seismicity, due to the scarcity of data in some of the areas covered by the model, super zones are introduced. These super zones are defined by combining area sources based on similarities in their tectonic regime, and taking into account local expert’s judgments. The super zones are used to estimate: (1) the completeness time of the earthquake catalogue, (2) the depth distribution of seismicity, (3) the tectonic regime through focal mechanisms analysis, (4) the maximum magnitude and (5) the b values via the GR relationship.The earthquake catalogue for focal mechanism is extracted from the Harvard Global Centroid Moment Tensor Catalog (Ekström and Nettles, 2013). For the focal mechanism classification, the Boore et al. (1997) convention is used. This means that an event is considered to be strike-slip if the absolute value of the rake angle is <=30 or >=150 degrees, normal if the rake angle is <-30 or >-150 and reverse (thrust) if the rake angle is >30 or <150 degrees. The distribution of source mechanisms and their weights are estimated for the super zones. For area sources, the maximum magnitude is usually taken from the historical seismicity, but due to some uncertainties in the magnitudes of the largest events, the opinions of the local experts are also included in assigning the maximum magnitude to each super zone. Super zones 2 and 3, which belongs to stable regions, are each assigned a maximum magnitude of 6, after Mooney et al. (2012), which concludes after analyses and observation of modern datasets that at least an event of magnitude 6 can occur anywhere in the world. For hazard calculations, each area source is assigned the maximum magnitude of their respective super zone.For processing the GR parameters (a and b values) for the area sources, the completeness analysis results estimated for the super zones are assigned to the respective smaller area sources. If the individual area source has at least 20 events, the GR parameters are then estimated for the area source. Otherwise, the b value is adopted from the respective super zone to which the smaller area source belongs, and the a value is estimated based on the Weichert (1980) method. This ensures the stability in the b value as well as the variation of activity rate for different sources. The hypocentral depth distribution is estimated from the seismicity inside each super zone. The depth distribution is considered for maximum up to three values. Based on the number of events, the weights are assigned to each distribution. These depth distributions, along with corresponding weights, are further assigned to the area sources within the same super zones.
Distribution file: "EMCA_seismozonesv1.0_shp.zip"Version: v1.0Release date: 2015-07-30Format: ESRI ShapefileGeometry type: polygonsNumber of features: 63Spatial Reference System: +proj=longlat +ellps=WGS84 +datum=WGS84 +no_defs Distribution file: "EMCA_seismozonesv1.0_nrml.zip"Version: v1.0Release date: 2015-07-30Format: NRML (XML) Format compatible with the GEM OpenQuake platform (http://www.globalquakemodel.org/openquake/about/platform/) Feature attributes:src_id : Id of the seismic sourcesrc_name : Name of the seismic sourcetect_reg: Tectonic regime of the seismic sourceupp_seismo : Upper level of the the seismogenic depth (km)low_seismo : Lower level of the seismogenic depth (km)mag_scal_r: Magnitude scaling relationshiprup_asp_ra: Rupture aspect ratiomfd_type : Magnitude frequency distribution typemin_mag: Minimum magnitude of the magnitude frequency relationshipmax_mag: Maximum magnitude of the magnitude frequency relationshipa_value: a value of the magnitude frequency relationshipb_balue : b value of the magnitude frequency relationshipnum_npd: number of nodal plane distributionweight_1 : weight of 1st nodal plane distributionstrike_1: Strike of the seismic source (degrees)rake_1: rake of the seismic source (degrees)dip_1: dip of the seismic source (degrees)num_hdd: number of hypocentral depth distributionhdd_d_1: Depth of 1st hypocentral depth distribution (km)hdd_w_1: Weight of 1st hypocentral depth distribution
# 9
Mikhailova, Natalya • Poleshko, N.N. • Aristova, I.L. • Mukambayev, A.S. • Kulikova, G.O.
Abstract: The EMCA (Earthquake Model Central Asia) catalogue (Mikhailova et al., 2015) includes information for 33620 earthquakes that occurred in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan). The catalogue provides for each event the estimated magnitude in terms of MLH (surface wave magnitude) scale, widely used in former USSR countries.MLH magnitudes range from 1.5 to 8.3. Although the catalogue spans the period from 2000 BC to 2009 AD, most of the entries (i.e. 33378) describe earthquakes that occurred after 1900. The catalogue includes the standard parametric information required for seismic hazard studies (i.e., time, location and magnitude values). The catalogue has been composed by integrating different sources (using different magnitude scales) and harmonised in terms of MLH scale. The MLH magnitude is determined from the horizontal component of surface waves (Rautian and Khalturin, 1994) and is reported in most of the seismic bulletins issued by seismological observatories in Central Asia. For the instrumental period MLH magnitude was estimated, when not directly measured, either from body wave magnitude (Mb), the energy class (K) or Mpva (regional magnitude by body waves determined by P-wave recorded by short-period instruments) using empirical regression analyses. The following relationships were used to estimate MLH (see Mikhailova, internal EMCA report, 2014):(1) MLH=0.47 K-1.15(2) MLH=1.34 Mb-1.89(3) MLH=1.14 Mpva-1.45When multiple scales were available for the same earthquake, priority was given to the conversion from K class. For the historical period, the MLH values were obtained from macroseismic information (Kondorskaya and Ulomov, 1996).
The catalogue is distributed as a ascii file in CSV (Comma Separated Value) format and UTF-8 encoding. A separate .csvt file is provided for column type specification (useful for importing the .csv file in QGIS and other similar environments).For each event the estimated location is provided as longitude, latitude, with the following spatial reference system: +proj=longlat +ellps=WGS84 +datum=WGS84 +no_defsWhen possible, precise indication of the events´ time in UTC format are provided.Distribution file: "EMCA_SeismoCat_v1.0.csv" Version: v1.0 Release date: 2015-07-30Header of CSV file:id: (int) serial ID of the eventyear: (int) Year of the event. Negative years refer to BCE (Before Common Era / Before Christ) eventsmonth: (int, 1-12) Month of the year for the eventday: (int, 1-31) Day of the month for the eventhour : (int, 0-23) Hour of the daymin: (int, 0-59) Minute of the hoursec: (int, 0-59) Second (and hundredth of second, if available) of the minutelat: (float) Latitude of the eventlon: (float) Longitude of the eventfdepth: (int) Focal depth of event in kmmlh: (float) Surface wave magnitude (see e.g. Rautian T. and V. Khalturin, 1994)
# 10
Rößler, Dirk • Passarelli, Luigi • Govoni, Aladino • Rivalta, Eleonora
Abstract: Phase A: roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20100101_20120527_0_90.png roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20100101_20120527_movie.avi Map with the locations of earthquake hypocentres during phase A (01/01/2010 - 27/05/2012). The yellow star shows the location of the main M5.2 earthquake on 25 October 2012. Day 0 corresponds to the start of the Pollino Seismic experiment on 2 November 2012. The system of normal faults on the surface are redrawn from [1]. Phase B: roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20120528_20120731_0_90.png roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20120528_20120731_movie.avi Map with the locations of earthquake hypocentres during phase B (28/05/2012 - 31/07/2012). The yellow star shows the location of the main M5.2 earthquake on 25 October 2012. Small grey dots: events during the phase A. Day 0 corresponds to the start of the Pollino Seismic experiment on 2 November 2012. The system of normal faults on the surface are redrawn from [1]. Phase C: roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20120801_20121024_0_90.png roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20120801_20121024_movie.avi Map with the locations of earthquake hypocentres during phase C (01/08/2012 - 24/10/2012). The yellow star shows the location of the main M5.2 earthquake on 25 October 2012. Small grey dots: events during the phases A, B. Day 0 corresponds to the start of the Pollino Seismic experiment on 2 November 2012. The system of normal faults on the surface are redrawn from [1]. Phase D: roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20121025_20121212_0_90.png roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20121025_20121212_movie.avi Map with the locations of earthquake hypocentres during phase D (25/10/2012 - 12/12/2012). The yellow star shows the location of the main M5.2 earthquake on 25 October 2012. Small grey dots: events during the phases A, B,C. Day 0 corresponds to the start of the Pollino Seismic experiment on 2 November 2012. The system of normal faults on the surface are redrawn from [1]. Phase E: roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20121213_20121219_0_90.png roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20121213_20121219_movie.avi Map with the locations of earthquake hypocentres during phase D (13/12/2012 - 19/12/2012). The yellow star shows the location of the main M5.2 earthquake on 25 October 2012. Day 0 corresponds to the start of the Pollino Seismic experiment on 2 November 2012. The system of normal faults on the surface are redrawn from [1]. Phase F.1: roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20121220_20131231_0_90.png roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20121220_20131231_movie.avi Map with the locations of earthquake hypocentres during phase F.1 (20/12/2012 - 31/12/2012). The yellow star shows the location of the main M5.2 earthquake on 25 October 2012. Day 0 corresponds to the start of the Pollino Seismic experiment on 2 November 2012. The system of normal faults on the surface are redrawn from [1]. Phase F.2: roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20140101_20140910_0_90.png roessler_pollino_locations_gfzpublication20140101_20140910_movie.avi Map with the locations of earthquake hypocentres during phase F.1 (01/01/2013 - 10/09/2014). The yellow star shows the location of the main M5.2 earthquake on 25 October 2012. Day 0 corresponds to the start of the Pollino Seismic experiment on 2 November 2012. The system of normal faults on the surface are redrawn from [1].
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