121 documents found in 486ms
# 1
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
Abstract: Soil map of the Baikal region from the FAO/IIASA digital soil data base of North and Central Asia (available on CD-ROM). The polygon data were transformed to UTM Z48, WGS 84. * pedology (FAO agro-economical soil types)
# 2
Heim, Birgit • Klump, Jens • Fagel, Natalie • Oberhänsli, Hedi
Abstract: Supplementary material to B. Heim et al. (2008): Assembly and concept of a web-based GIS within the paleoclimate project CONTINENT (Lake Baikal, Siberia)
# 3
Oeser, Ralf A. • Stroncik, Nicole • Moskwa, Lisa-Marie • Bernhard, Nadine • Schaller, Mirjam • (et. al.)
Abstract: The Chilean Coastal Cordillera features a spectacular climate and vegetation gradient, ranging from arid and unvegetated areas in the north to humid and forested areas in the south. The DFG Priority Program "EarthShape" (Earth Surface Shaping by Biota) uses this natural gradient to investigate how climate and biological processes shape the Earth's surface. We explored the critical zone, the Earth's uppermost layer, in four key sites located in desert, semidesert, mediterranean, and temperate climate zones of the Coastal Cordillera, with the focus on weathering of granitic rock. Here, we present first results from four ~2m-deep regolith profiles to document: (1) architecture of weathering zone; (2) degree and rate of rock weathering, thus the release of mineral-derived nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystems; (3) denudation rates; and (4) microbial abundances of bacteria and archaea in the saprolite. From north to south, denudation rates from cosmogenic nuclides are ~10 t km-2 yr-1 at the arid Pan de Azúcar site, ~20 t km-2 yr-1 at the semi-arid site of Santa Gracia, ~60 t km-2 yr-1 at the mediterranean climate site of La Campana, and ~30 t km-2 yr-1 at the humid site of Nahuelbuta. A and B horizons increase in thickness and elemental depletion or enrichment increases from north (~26 °S) to south (~38 °S) in these horizons. Differences in the degree of chemical weathering, quantified by the chemical depletion fraction (CDF), are significant only between the arid and sparsely vegetated site and the other three sites. Differences in the CDF between the sites, and elemental depletion within the sites are sometimes smaller than the variations induced by the bedrock heterogeneity. Microbial abundances (bacteria and archaea) in saprolite substantially increase from the arid to the semi-arid sites. With this study, we provide a comprehensive dataset characterizing the Critical Zone geochemistry in the Chilean Coastal Cordillera. This dataset confirms climatic controls on weathering and denudation rates and provides prerequisites to quantify the role of biota in future studies. The data are supplementary material to Oeser et al. (2018). All samples are assigned with International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSN), a globally unique and persistent Identifier for physical samples. The IGSNs are provided in the data tables and link to a comprehensive sample description in the internet. The content of the eight data tables is: Table S1: Catena properties of the four primary EarthShape study areas.Table S2: Major and selected trace element concentration for bedrock samples.Table S3 Normative modal abundance of rock-forming minerals.Table S4: Major and selected trace element concentration for regolith samples and dithionite and oxalate soluble pedogenic oxides.Table S5: Weathering indices CDF and CIA, and the mass transfer coefficients (��) for major and trace elements along with volumetric strain (ɛ).Table S6: Chemical weathering and physical erosion ratesTable S7: Relative microbial abundances in saprolite of the four study areas.Table S8: Uncorrected major and trace element concentration. The data tables are provided as one Excel file with eight spreadsheets, as individual tables in .csv format in a zipped archive and as printable PDF versions in a zipped archive.
# 4
Bernhard, Nadine • Moskwa, Lisa-Marie • Schmidt, Karsten • Oeser, Ralf A. • Aburto, Felipe • (et. al.)
Abstract: The effects of climate and topography on soil physico-chemical and microbial parameters were studied along an extensive latitudinal climate gradient in the Coastal Cordillera of Chile (26° - 38°S). The study sites encompass arid (Pan de Azúcar), semiarid (Santa Gracia), mediterranean (La Campana) and humid (Nahuelbuta) climates and vegetation, ranging from arid desert, dominated by biological soil crusts (biocrusts), semiarid shrubland and mediterranean sclerophyllous forest, where biocrusts are present but do have a seasonal pattern to temperate-mixed forest, where biocrusts only occur as an early pioneering development stage after disturbance. All soils originate from granitic parent materials and show very strong differences in pedogenesis intensity and soil depth. Most of the investigated physical, chemical and microbiological soil properties showed distinct trends along the climate gradient. Further, abrupt changes between the arid northernmost study site and the other semi-arid to humid sites can be shown, which indicate non-linearity and thresholds along the climate gradient. Clay and total organic carbon contents (TOC) as well as Ah horizons and solum depths increased from arid to humid climates, whereas bulk density (BD), pH values and base saturation (BS) decreased. These properties demonstrate the accumulation of organic matter, clay formation and element leaching as key-pedogenic processes with increasing humidity. However, the soils in the northern arid climate do not follow this overall latitudinal trend, because texture and BD are largely controlled by aeolian input of dust and sea salts spray followed by the formation of secondary evaporate minerals. Total soil DNA concentrations and TOC increased from arid to humid sites, while areal coverage by biocrusts exhibited an opposite trend. Relative bacterial and archaeal abundances were lower in the arid site, but for the other sites the local variability exceeds the variability along the climate gradient. Differences in soil properties between topographic positions were most pronounced at the study sites with the mediterranean and humid climate, whereas microbial abundances were independent on topography across all study sites. In general, the regional climate is the strongest controlling factor for pedogenesis and microbial parameters in soils developed from the same parent material. Topographic position along individual slopes of limited length augmented this effect only under humid conditions, where water erosion likely relocated particles and elements downward. The change from alkaline to neutral soil pH between the arid and the semi-arid site coincided with qualitative differences in soil formation as well as microbial habitats. This also reflects non-linear relationships of pedogenic and microbial processes in soils depending on climate with a sharp threshold between arid and semi-arid conditions. Therefore, the soils on the transition between arid and semi-arid conditions are especially sensitive and may be well used as indicators of long and medium-term climate changes. Concluding, the unique latitudinal precipitation gradient in the Coastal Cordillera of Chile is predestined to investigate the effects of the main soil forming factor – climate – on pedogenic processes. The data presented here is part of the German-Chilean Priority Program “EarthShape” (Earth Surface Shaping by Biota), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). We provide the basic background data, which includes investigations into the influence of climate, vegetation and topography on pedogenesis and microbial abundances. The data are supplementary material to Bernhard et al. (2018). All tables are available as one Excel file, as individual tables in .csv format in a zipped archive and as PDF file. The samples are assigned with International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSN) and linked to a comprehensive sample description in the internet. The content of the five data tables is:Table S1: Soil profile field description for the EarthShape study sitesTable S2: Soil physico-chemical properties for the depth increment samples in the four study sitesTable S3: Soil physico-chemical properties for the horizon samples in the four study sitesTable S4: Relative microbial abundances in the four study sitesTable S5: Plant species and abundance (% cover) in the four study sites
# 5
Schmidt, Marius
Abstract: TERENO Eifel-Rur Observatory. TERENO (TERrestrial ENvironmental Observatories) spans an Earth observation network across Germany that extends from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps. This unique large-scale project aims to catalogue the longterm ecological, social and economic impact of global change at regional level.The central monitoring site of the TERENO Eifel/Lower Rhine Valley Observatory is the catchment area of the River Rur. It covers a total area of 2354 km² and exhibits a distinct land use gradient: The lowland region in the northern part is characterised by urbanisation and intensive agriculture whereas the low mountain range in the southern part is sparsely populated and includes several drinking water reservoirs. Furthermore, the Eifel National Park is situated in the southern part of the Rur catchment serving as a reference site. Intensive test sites are placed along a transect across the Rur catchments in representative land cover, soil, and geologic settings.The Rollesbroich site is located in the low mountain range “Eifel” near the German-Belgium border and covers the area of the small Kieselbach catchment (40 ha) with altitudes ranging from 474 to 518 m.a.s.l.. The climate is temperate maritime with a mean annual air temperature and precipitation of 7.7 °C and 1033 mm, respectively, for the period from 1981 to 2001. Soils are dominated by (stagnic) Cambisols and Stagnosols on Devonian shales with occasional sandstone inclusions that are covered by a periglacial solifluction clay–silt layer. The mountainous grassland vegetation is dominated by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and smooth meadow grass (Poa pratensis).The study site is highly instrumented. All components of the water balance (e.g. precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, soil water content) are continuously monitored using state-of-the-art instrumentation, including weighable lysimeters, runoff gauges, cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors, a wireless sensor network that monitors soil temperature, and soil moisture at 189 locations in different depths (5, 20 and 50 cm) throughout the study site. Periodically also different chamber measurements were made to access soil or plant gas exchange.This data set contains weekly updated flux-, meteorological and soil measurements of the permanent operating EC/Climate station Rollesbroich 1 (50.621° N, 6.304° E, 515 m a.s.l.), which was installed in spring 2011 at the border of two fields of grassland (5.8 and 7.8 ha) within the study site. Management of both fields is typical for the low mountain range of the Eifel region with one fertilizer application and three cuts per year. The area within the fetch of the eddy covariance tower is relatively flat with slopes ranging between 0.35° and 3.12°. The station is equipped with a CSAT3 sonic anemometer and LI7500 gas analyser. Besides flux measurements and typical climate parameters (radiation, air temperature, air humidity, soil moisture, soil temperature etc.) also the plant height and farming activities are recorded.Meteorological and soil data was at least controlled by visual inspection by using common plausibility ranges and cross checks with nearby stations. Afterwards the data was flagged according to it's quality (O.K., suspect, moderate, bad etc.). Flux data was processed and checked according to the TERENO QC scheme (Mauder,et al., 2013, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.09.006).
# 6
Jarmer, Thomas • Siegmann, Bastian
Abstract: The dataset is composed of hyperspectral imagery acquired during airplane overflights on May 10th, 2011, June 27th, 2011 and May 24th, 2012 consisting of 367 and 368 spectral bands, respective-ly, ranging from VIS to SWIR (400 - 2500 nm) wavelength regions. The hyperspectral image data was acquired in the framework of the EnMAP preparation project HyLand (Hyperspectral remote sensing for the assessment of crop and soil parameters in precision farming and yield estimation). Within the project, innovative techniques were developed to derive crop and soil parameters from hyper-spectral remote sensing and terrestrial laser scanning data, which served as input parameters for novel yield estimation models.
The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP) is a German hyperspectral satellite mission that aims at monitoring and characterizing the Earth’s environment on a global scale. EnMAP serves to measure and model key dynamic processes of the Earth’s ecosystems by extract-ing geochemical, biochemical and biophysical parameters, which provide information on the status and evolution of various terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In the frame of the EnMAP preparatory phase, pre-flight campaigns including airborne and in-situ measurements in different environments and for several application fields are being conducted. The main purpose of these campaigns is to support the development of scientific applications for EnMAP. In addition, the acquired data are input in the EnMAP end-to-end simulation tool (EeteS) and are employed to test data pre-processing and calibration-validation methods. The campaign data are made freely available to the scientific community under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. An overview of all available data is provided in in the EnMAP Flight Campaigns Metadata Portal (http://www.enmap.org/?q=flightbeta).
# 7
Uhlig, David • Schuessler, Jan A. • Bouchez, Julien • Dixon, Jean L. • von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm
Abstract: This dataset is a supplementary dataset to the manuscript: “Uhlig, D., Schuessler, J. A., Bouchez, J. L., Dixon, J., and von Blanckenburg, F.: Quantifying nutrient uptake as driver of rock weathering in forest ecosystems by magnesium stable isotopes, Biogeosciences, 2017“. The dataset contains physicochemical parameters of stream water (pH, temperature, conductivity discharge, alkalinity) , and chemical and Mg isotope analyses of stream water, vegetation, soil, saprolite, weathered bedrock and unweathered bedrock of three headwater catchments at Providence Creek in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Further, the dataset contains soil and saprolite weathering indicators such as the chemical depletion fraction (CDF) and mass transfer coefficients, as well as elemental regolith production fluxes, elemental net solubilisation fluxes, elemental dissolved river fluxes, elemental litterfall fluxes, nutrient recycling fluxes and elemental dissolved export efficiencies that rely on measured data reported in the above study and data from literature. These data and metrics were used to track the pathway of Mg and other nutrients through the headwater catchments at the Critical Zone Observatory of the Southern Sierra Nevada.
# 8
Gosling, Simon • Müller Schmied, Hannes • Betts, Richard • Chang, Jinfeng • Ciais, Philippe • (et. al.)
Abstract: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically-relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a unique opportunity to consider interactions between climate change impacts across sectors. ISIMIP2a is the second ISIMIP simulation round, focusing on historical simulations (1971-2010 approx.) of climate impacts on agriculture, fisheries, permafrost, biomes, regional and global water and forests. This may serve as a basis for model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. The focus topic for ISIMIP2a is model evaluation and validation, in particular with respect to the representation of impacts of extreme weather events and climate variability. During this phase, four common global observational climate data sets were provided across all impact models and sectors. In addition, appropriate observational data sets of impacts for each sector were collected, against which the models can be benchmarked. Access to the input data for the impact models is provided through a central ISIMIP archive (see https://www.isimip.org/gettingstarted/#input-data-bias-correction). This entry refers to the ISIMIP2a simulation data from global hydrology models: CLM4, DBH, H08, JULES_W1, JULES_B1, LPJmL, MATSIRO, MPI-HM, ORCHIDEE, PCR-GLOBWB, SWBM, VIC, WaterGAP2.
The ISIMIP2a water (global) outputs are based on simulations from 13 global hydrology models (see listing) according to the ISIMIP2a protocol (https://www.isimip.org/protocol/#isimip2a). The models simulate hydrological processes and dynamics (part of the models also considering human water abstractions and reservoir regulation) based on climate and physio-geographical information. A more detailed description of the models and model-specific amendments of the protocol are available here: https://www.isimip.org/impactmodels/.
# 9
Krysanova, Valentina • Hattermann, Fred • Aich, Valentin • Alemayehu, Tadesse • Arheimer, Berit • (et. al.)
Abstract: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically-relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a unique opportunity to consider interactions between climate change impacts across sectors. ISIMIP2a is the second ISIMIP simulation round, focusing on historical simulations (1971-2010) of climate impacts on agriculture, fisheries, permafrost, biomes, regional and global water and forests. This will serve as a basis for model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. In the regional water sector, future simulations of climate-change impacts were also carried out, using climate data from five global climate models (GCMs: HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, GFDL-ESM2M and NorESM1-M) for the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). The focus topic for ISIMIP2a is model evaluation and validation, in particular with respect to the representation of impacts of extreme weather events and climate variability. During this phase, four common global observational climate data sets were provided across all impact models and sectors. In addition, appropriate observational data sets of impacts for each sector were collected, against which the models can be benchmarked. Access to the input data for the impact models is provided through a central ISIMIP archive (see https://www.isimip.org/gettingstarted/#input-data-bias-correction). This entry refers to the ISIMIP2a simulation data from regional hydrology models (river basins in brackets):HBV-CMA (Yangtze)HBV-IWW (Tagus)HBV-JLU (Rhine, Ganges, Mississippi)HBV-PIK (Rhine, Niger, Yellow, Blue Nile, Amazon)HYMOD-JLU (Rhine, Ganges, Mississippi)HYMOD-UFZ (Rhine, Niger, Blue Nile, Ganges, Yellow, Darling, Mississippi, Amazon)HYPE (Rhine, Tagus, Niger, Ganges, Lena, Mackenzie)mHM (Rhine, Niger, Blue Nile, Ganges, Yellow, Darling, Mississippi, Amazon)SWAP (Rhine, Tagus, Niger, Ganges, Yellow, Yangtze; Lena, Darling, MacKenzie, Mississippi, Amazon)SWAT (Yangtze; Darling; Blue Nile; Amazon; Mississippi; Niger)SWIM (Rhine, Yellow, Mississippi; Niger; Lena; Tagus; Blue Nile; Yangtze; Ganges, Amazon)VIC (Tagus, Blue Nile, Yellow, Lena, Darling, Amazon, MacKenzie; Rhine, Niger, Mississippi; Ganges; Yangtze)VIP (Yellow)WaterGAP3 (Rhine, Tagus, Niger, Blue Nile, Ganges, Yellow, Lena, Mississippi)ECOMAG (Lena, MacKenzie)
The ISIMIP2a water (regional) outputs are based on simulations from 15 regional hydrology models (see listing) according to the ISIMIP2a protocol (https://www.isimip.org/protocol/#isimip2a). The models simulate hydrological processes and dynamics (part of the models also considering human water abstractions and reservoir regulation) based on climate and physio-geographical information. A more detailed description of the models and model-specific amendments of the protocol are available here: https://www.isimip.org/impactmodels/.
# 10
Arneth, Almut • Balkovic, Juraj • Ciais, Philippe • de Wit, Allard • Deryng, Delphine • (et. al.)
Abstract: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically-relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a unique opportunity to consider interactions between climate change impacts across sectors. ISIMIP2a is the second ISIMIP simulation round, focusing on historical simulations (1971-2010) of climate impacts on agriculture, fisheries, permafrost, biomes, regional and global water and forests. This will serve as a basis for model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. The focus topic for ISIMIP2a is model evaluation and validation, in particular with respect to the representation of impacts of extreme weather events and climate variability. During this phase, four common global observational climate data sets were provided across all impact models and sectors. In addition, appropriate observational data sets of impacts for each sector were collected, against which the models can be benchmarked. Access to the input data for the impact models is provided through a central ISIMIP archive (see https://www.isimip.org/gettingstarted/#input-data-bias-correction). This entry refers to the ISIMIP2a simulation data from Agricultural Sector models: CGMS-WOFOST, CLM-Crop, EPIC-Boku, EPIC-IIASA, EPIC-TAMU, GEPIC, LPJ-GUESS, LPJmL, ORCHIDEE-CROP, pAPSIM, pDSSAT, PEGASUS, PEPIC, PRYSBI2.
The ISIMIP2a agriculture outputs are based on simulations from 14 agricultural sector models (see listing) according to the ISIMIP2a protocol (https://www.isimip.org/protocol/#isimip2a). The models simulate cop yields and irrigation water withdrawal (assuming unlimited water supply), based on planting dates, crop variety parameters, approximate maturity dates (to allow for spatially-explicit variety parameterization), as well as fertilizer use (N, P, K). A more detailed description of the models and model-specific amendments of the protocol are available here: https://www.isimip.org/impactmodels/.
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