405 documents found in 416ms
# 11
Ziegler, Moritz • Heidbach, Oliver
Abstract: The distribution of data records for the maximum horizontal stress orientation SHmax in the Earth’s crust is sparse and very unequally. In order to analyse the stress pattern and its wavelength or to predict the mean SHmax orientation on a regular grid, statistical interpolation as conducted e.g. by Coblentz and Richardson (1995), Müller et al. (2003), Heidbach and Höhne (2008), Heidbach et al. (2010) or Reiter et al. (2014) is necessary. Based on their work we wrote the Matlab® script Stress2Grid that provides several features to analyse the mean SHmax pattern. The script facilitates and speeds up this analysis and extends the functionality compared to aforementioned publications. The script is complemented by a number of example and input files as described in the WSM Technical Report (Ziegler and Heidbach, 2017, http://doi.org/10.2312/wsm.2017.002). The script provides two different concepts to calculate the mean SHmax orientation on a regular grid. The first is using a fixed search radius around the grid point and computes the mean SHmax orientation if sufficient data records are within the search radius. The larger the search radius the larger is the filtered wavelength of the stress pattern. The second approach is using variable search radii and determines the search radius for which the variance of the mean SHmax orientation is below a given threshold. This approach delivers mean SHmax orientations with a user-defined degree of reliability. It resolves local stress perturbations and is not available in areas with conflicting information that result in a large variance. Furthermore, the script can also estimate the deviation between plate motion direction and the mean SHmax orientation.
# 12
van Dongen, Renee • Scherler, Dirk • Wittmann, Hella • von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm
Abstract: Concentrations of in-situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in river sediment are widely used to estimate catchment-average denudation rates. Typically, the 10Be concentrations are measured in the sand fraction of river sediment. However, the grain size of bedload sediment in most bedrock rivers covers a much wider range. Where 10Be concentrations depend on grain size, denudation rate estimates based on the sand fraction alone are potentially biased. To date, knowledge about catchment attributes that may induce grain-size-dependent 10Be concentrations is incomplete or has only been investigated in modelling studies. Here we present an empirical study on the occurrence of grain-size-dependent 10Be concentrations and the potential controls of hillslope angle, precipitation, lithology, and abrasion. We first conducted a study focusing on the sole effect of precipitation in four granitic catchments located on a climate gradient in the Chilean Coastal Cordillera. We found that observed grain size dependencies of 10Be concentrations in the most-arid and most-humid catchments could be explained by the effect of precipitation on both the scouring depth of erosion processes and the depth of the mixed soil layer. Analysis of a global dataset of published 10Be concentrations in different grain sizes (n=73 catchments) – comprising catchments with contrasting hillslope angles, climate, lithology, and catchment size – revealed a similar pattern. Lower 10Be concentrations in coarse grains (defined as “negative grain size dependency”) emerge frequently in catchments which likely have thin soil and where deep-seated erosion processes (e.g. landslides) excavate grains over a larger depth interval. These catchments include steep (> 25°) and humid catchments (> 2000mm yr-1). Furthermore, we found that an additional cause of negative grain size dependencies may emerge in large catchments with weak lithologies and long sediment travel distances (> 2300–7000 m, depending on lithology) where abrasion may lead to a grain size distribution that is not representative for the entire catchment. The results of this study can be used to evaluate whether catchment-average denudation rates are likely to be biased in particular catchments. Samples from the Chilean Coastal Cordillera were processed in the Helmholtz Laboratory for the Geochemistry of the Earth Surface (HELGES). 10Be/9Be ratios were measured at the University of Cologne and normalized to the KN01-6-2 and KN01-5-3 standards. Denudation rates were calculated using a time-independent scaling scheme according to Lal (1991) and Stone (2002) (St scaling scheme) and the SLHL production rate of 4.01 at g-1 yr-1 as reported by Phillips et al. (2016) The global compilation exists of studies that measured 10Be concentrations in different grain sizes from the same sample location. We only included river basins of <5000 km2 which measured 10Be concentrations in at least one sand-sized fraction <2 mm and at least one coarser fraction >2 mm. Catchment parameters have been recalculated using a 90-m SRTM DEM. The data are presented in Excel and csv tables. Table S1 describes the characteristics of the samples catchments, Table S2 includes the grain size dependent 10Be-concentrations measured during this study and Table 3 the global compilation of grain size dependent 10Be-concentrations. All samples of this study (the Chilean Coastal Cordillera) are assigned with International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSN). The IGSN links are included in Table S2 and in the Related References Section on the DOI Landing Page. The data are described in detail in the data description file and in van Dongen et al. (2018) to which they are supplementary material to.
# 13
Dreiling, Jennifer • Tilmann, Frederik
Abstract: BayHunter is an open source Python tool to perform an McMC transdimensional Bayesian inversion of receiver functions and/ or surface wave dispersion. It is inverting for the velocity-depth structure, the number of layers and noise parameters (noise correlation and amplitude). The forward modeling codes are provided within the package, but are easily replaceable with own codes. It is also possible to add (completely different) data sets. The BayWatch module can be used to live-stream the inversion while it is running: this makes it easy to see how each chain is exploring the parameter space, how the data fits and models change and in which direction the inversion progresses.
# 14
Blanchet, Cécile L.
Abstract: The database presented here contains radiogenic neodymium and strontium isotope ratios measured on both terrestrial and marine sediments. It was compiled to help assessing sediment provenance and transport processes for various time intervals. This can be achieved by either mapping sediment isotopic signature and/or fingerprinting source areas using statistical tools (see supplemental references). The database has been built by incorporating data from the literature and the SedDB database and harmonizing the metadata, especially units and geographical coordinates. The original data were processed in three steps. Firstly, a specific attention has been devoted to provide geographical coordinates to each sample in order to be able to map the data. When available, the original geographical coordinates from the reference (generally DMS coordinates, with different precision standard) were transferred into the decimal degrees system. When coordinates were not provided, an approximate location was derived from available information in the original publication. Secondly, all samples were assigned a set of standardized criteria that help splitting the dataset in specific categories. We defined categories associated with the sample location ("Region", "Sub-region", "Location", which relate to location at continental to city/river scale) or with the sample types (terrestrial samples – “aerosols”, “soil sediments”, “river sediments” - or marine samples –“marine sediment” or “trap sample”). Thirdly, samples were discriminated according to their deposition age, which allowed to compute average values for specific time intervals (see attached table "Age_determination_Sediment_Cores.csv"). The dataset will be updated bi-annually and might be extended to reach a global geographical extent and/or add other type of samples. This dataset contains two csv tables: "Dataset_Nd_Sr_isotopes.csv" and "Age_determination_Sediment_Cores.csv". "Dataset_Nd_Sr_isotopes.csv" contains the assembled dataset of marine and terrestrial Nd and/or Sr concentration and isotopes, together with sorting criteria and geographical locations. "Age_determination_Sediment_Cores.csv" contains all background information concerning the determination of the isotopic signature of specific time intervals (depth interval, number of samples, mean and standard deviation). Column headers are explained in respective metadata comma-separated files. A human readable data description is provided in portable document format, as well. Finally, R code for mapping the data and running statistical analyses is also available for this dataset (see supplemental references).
# 15
Blanchet, Cécile L.
Abstract: The database presented here contains radiogenic neodymium and strontium isotope ratios measured on both terrestrial and marine sediments. It was compiled to help assessing sediment provenance and transport processes for various time intervals. This can be achieved by either mapping sediment isotopic signature and/or fingerprinting source areas using statistical tools (e.g. Blanchet, 2018b, 2018a). The database has been built by incorporating data from the literature and the SedDB database and harmonizing the metadata, especially units and geographical coordinates. The original data were processed in three steps. Firstly, a specific attention has been devoted to provide geographical coordinates to each sample in order to be able to map the data. When available, the original geographical coordinates from the reference (generally DMS coordinates, with different precision standard) were transferred into the decimal degrees system. When coordinates were not provided, an approximate location was derived from available information in the original publication. Secondly, all samples were assigned a set of standardized criteria that help splitting the dataset in specific categories. We defined categories associated with the sample location ("Region", "Sub-region", "Location", which relate to location at continental to city/river scale) or with the sample types (terrestrial samples – “aerosols”, “soil sediments”, “river sediments”, “rocks” - or marine samples –“marine sediment” or “trap sample”). Thirdly, samples were discriminated according to their deposition age, which allowed to compute average values for specific time intervals (see attached table "Age_determination_Sediment_Cores_V2.txt"). A first version of the database was published in September 2018 and presented data for the African sector. A second version was published in April 2019, in which the dataset has been extended to reach a global extent. The dataset will be further updated bi-annually to increase the geographical resolution and/or add other type of samples. This dataset consists of two tab separated tables: "Dataset_Nd_Sr_isotopes_V2.txt" and "Age_determination_Sediment_Cores_V2.txt". "Dataset_Nd_Sr_isotopes_V2.txt" contains the assembled dataset of marine and terrestrial Nd and/or Sr concentration and isotopes, together with sorting criteria and geographical locations. "Age_determination_Sediment_Cores_V2.txt" contains all background information concerning the determination of the isotopic signature of specific time intervals (depth interval, number of samples, mean and standard deviation). Column headers are explained in respective metadata comma-separated files. A full reference list is provided in the file “References_Database_Nd_Sr_isotopes_V2.rtf”. Finally, R code for mapping the data and running statistical analyses is also available for this dataset (Blanchet, 2018b, 2018a).
# 16
Broerse, Taco • Norder, Ben • Picken, Stephen • Govers, Rob • Willingshofer, Ernst • (et. al.)
Abstract: This dataset provides strain and strain rate data on mixtures of plasticine, silicone oils and iron powder that has been used in slab break-of analogue experiments in the Tectonic Laboratory (TecLab) at Utrecht University (NL) as an analogue for viscously deforming lithosphere. The materials have been analyzed in a creep and recovery test, applying a parallel plate setup using an AR-G2 rheometer (by TA Instruments). The materials can in general be described as viscoelastic materials with a power-law rheology (see previous work on plasticine-silicone polymer mixtures Weijermars [1986], Sokoutis [1987], Boutelier et al. [2008]). For a couple of the tested materials we find a complementary Newtonian behavior at the low end of the tested stress levels, with a transition to power-law behavior at increasing stress. Furthermore, the materials exhibit elastic and anelastic (recoverable) deformation. The corresponding paper (Broerse et al., 2018) describes the rheology, while this supplement describes the raw data and important details of the measurement setup. The raw data concerns mostly (uncorrected) strain and strain rate data. The rheometry has been performed at the Advanced Soft Matter group at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
# 17
Korte, Monika • Brown, Maxwell
Abstract: Global spherical harmonic paleomagnetic field model LSMOD.2 describes the magnetic field evolution from 50 to 30 ka BP based on published paleomagnetic sediment records and volcanic data. It is an update of LSMOD.1, with the only difference being a correction to the geographic locations of one of the underlying datasets. The time interval includes the Laschamp (~41 ka BP) and Mono Lake (~34 ka BP) excursions. The model is given with Fortran source code to obtain spherical harmonic magnetic field coefficients for individual epochs and to obtain time series of magnetic declination, inclination and field intensity from 49.95 to 30 ka BP for any location on Earth. For details see M. Korte, M. Brown, S. Panovska and I. Wardinski (2019): Robust characteristics of the Laschamp and Mono lake geomagnetic excursions: results from global field models. Submitted to Frontiers in Earth Sciences
File overview: LSMOD.2 -- ASCII file containing the time-dependent model by a list of spline basis knot points and spherical harmonic coefficients for these knot points.LSfield.f -- Fortran source code to obtain time series predictions of declination, inclination and intensity from the model file.LScoefs.f -- Fortran source code to obtain the spherical harmonic coefficients for an individual age from the time-dependent model file. The data are licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY 4.0) and the Fortran Codes under the Apache License, Version 2.0. The Fortran source code should work with any standard Fortran 77 or higher compiler. Each of the two program files can be compiled separately, all required subroutines are included in the files. The model file, LSMOD.1 or LSMOD.2, is read in by the executable program and has to be in the same directory. The programs work with interactive input, which will be requested when running the program.
# 18
van Rijsingen, Elenora • Funiciello, Francesca • Corbi, Fabio • Lallemand, Serge
Abstract: This dataset contains digital image correlation (DIC) data of eight seismotectonic analogue experiments that were performed at the Laboratory of Experimental Tectonics (LET), Univ. Rome Tre, to investigate the effect of subduction interface roughness on the seismogenic behaviour of the megathrust. The study has been done in the framework of the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement 642029 – ITN CREEP. Together with DIC data we also provide analogue earthquake characteristics and Matlab scripts for visualization. Here we provide Digital Image Correlation data for eight experiments that last about 20 minutes (i.e., including tens of seismic cycles), of which four experiments include a smooth subduction interface and four a rough subduction interface. The DIC analysis provides a velocity field between two consecutive frames, measured at the surface of the model. Details about the nature and geometry of this interface, as well as the experimental procedure, model set-up and materials can be found in van Rijsingen et al. (2019), paragraph 2 and supporting information. A more detailed description of the data that we provide, the methods and the matlab scripts used for visualisation can be found in the data description file. An overview of the dataset can be found in the list of files.
# 19
Pijnenburg, Ronald • Verberne, Berend • Hangx, Suzanne • Spiers, Christopher
Abstract: Hydrocarbon or groundwater production from sandstone reservoirs can result in surface subsidence and induced seismicity. Subsidence results from combined elastic and inelastic compaction of the reservoir due to a change in the effective stress state upon fluid extraction. The magnitude of elastic compaction can be accurately described using poroelasticity theory. However inelastic or time-dependent compaction is poorly constrained. We use sandstones recovered by the field operator (NAM) from the Slochteren gas reservoir (Groningen, NE Netherlands) to study the importance of elastic versus inelastic deformation processes upon simulated pore pressure depletion. We conducted conventional triaxial tests under true in-situ conditions of pressure and temperature. To investigate the effect of applied differential stress (σ1 – σ3 = 0 - 50 MPa) and initial sample porosity (φi = 12 – 25%) on instantaneous and time-dependent inelastic deformation, we imposed multiple stages of axial loading and relaxation. The obtained data include:1) Mechanical data obtained in conventional triaxial compression experiments performed on reservoir sandstone. In these experiments, we imposed multiple stages of active loading, each followed by 24 hours of stress relaxation.2) Microstructural data obtained on undeformed and deformed samples.
# 20
Corbi, Fabio • Sandri, Laura • Bedford, Jonathan • Funiciello, Francesca • Brizzi, Silvia • (et. al.)
Abstract: This data set includes the results of digital image correlation of one experiment on subduction megathrust earthquakes with interacting asperities performed at the Laboratory of Experimental Tectonics (LET) Univ. Roma Tre in the framework of AspSync, the Marie Curie project (grant agreement 658034) lead by F. Corbi in 2016-2017. Detailed descriptions of the experiments and monitoring techniques can be found in Corbi et al. (2017 and 2019) to which this data set is supplementary material. We here provide Digital Image Correlation (DIC) data relative to a 7 min long interval during which the experiment 
produces 40 seismic cycles with average duration of about 10.5 s (see Figure S1 in Corbi et al., 2019). The DIC analysis yields quantitative about the velocity field characterizing two consecutive frames, measured in this case at the model surface. For a detailed description of the experimental procedure, set-up and materials used, please refer to the article of Corbi et al. (2017) paragraph 2. This data set has been used for: a) studying the correlation between apparent slip-deficit maps and earthquake slip pattern (see Corbi et al., 2019; paragraph 4); and b) as input for the Machine Learning investigation (see Corbi et al., 2019; paragraph 5). Further technical information about the methods, data products and matlab scripts is proviced in the data description file. The list of files explains the file and folder structure of the data set.
spinning wheel Loading next page