47 documents found in 302ms
# 1
Lu, Biao • Luo, Zhicai • Zhong, Bo • Zhou, Hao • Förste, Christoph • (et. al.)
Abstract: IGGT_R1 is a static gravity field model based on the second invariant of the GOCE gravitational gradient tensor, up to degree and order 240. Based on tensor theory, three invariants of the gravitational gradient tensor (IGGT) are independent of the gradiometer reference frame (GRF). Compared to traditional methods for calculation of gravity field models based on GOCE data, which are affected by errors in the attitude indicator, using IGGT and least squares method avoids the problem of inaccurate rotation matrices. IGGT_R1 is the first experiment to use this method to build a real gravity field model by using GOCE gravitational gradients. This new model has been developed by Wuhan University (WHU), GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), Technical University of Berlin (TUB), Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) and Zhengzhou Information Engineering University (IEU). More details about the gravity field model IGGT_R1 is given in our paper “The gravity field model IGGT_R1 based on the second invariant of the GOCE gravitational gradient tensor” (Lu et al., 2017, http://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-017-1089-8). This work is supported by the Chinese Scholarship Council (No. 201506270158), the Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104014, 41131067, 41374023, 41474019 and 41504013) and the Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, Ministry Education, Wuhan University (No. 16-02-07).
# 2
Hinzen, Klaus-G. • Fleischer, Claus
Abstract: Engineering seismological models (incl. ground amplification and topographic effects) of key structures in Tiryns and Midea, Greece, will be used to test the hypothesis of seismogenic causes of the decline of the Mycenaean settlements in the 12th century BC.
# 3
Bernd Schurr • Anke Dannowski • Branislav Glavatovic • Llambro Duni • Heidrun Kopp • (et. al.)
Abstract: Raw-, SEG-Y and other supplementary data of the landside deployment from the amphibious wide-angle seismic experiment ALPHA are presented. The aim of this project was to reveal the crustal and lithospheric structure of the subducting Adriatic plate and the external accretionary wedge in the southern Dinarides. Airgun shots from the RV Meteor were recorded along two profiles across Montenegro and northern Albania.
# 4
Andreas Köhler • Christian Weidle • Christopher Nuth
Abstract: Climatic change is of incredible importance in the polar regions as ice-sheets and glaciers respond strongly to change in average temperature. The analysis of seismic signals (icequakes) emitted by glaciers (i.e., cryo-seismology) is thus gaining importance as a tool for monitoring glacier activity. To understand the scaling relation between regional glacier-related seismicity and actual small-scale local glacier dynamics and to calibrate the identified classes of icequakes to locally observed waveforms, a temporary passive seismic monitoring experiment was conducted in the vicinity of the calving front of Kronebreen, one of the fastest tidewater glaciers on Svalbard (Fig. 1). By combining the local observations with recordings of the nearby GEOFON station GE.KBS, the local experiment provides an ideal link between local observations at the glacier to regional scale monitoring of NW Spitsbergen. During the 4-month operation period from May to September 2013, eight broadband seismometers and three 4-point short-period arrays were operating around the glacier front of Kronebreen.
# 5
Ritter, Malte C. • Rosenau, Matthias • Oncken, Onno
Abstract: This dataset is supplementary material to the article of Ritter et al. (2017). In this article, the similarity of fault propagation work in analogue sandbox experiments to natural fault networks is investigated through measurements in a strike-slip sandbox and in a ring-shear-tester. The transient shear strength of the samples is measured for different fault lengths and from this the work is determined. For a detailed description of the procedure and the set-up please see Ritter et al. (2017). The data available in this supplementary publication are:• For the strike-slip experiments three video sequences of the deformation together with the evolution of boundary force for fault lengths of 20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm. The videos show the curl of the deformation field, determined by Digital Image Correlation of top-view video images. These files are in AVI-format and included in the zip folder 2017-005-Ritter-movies.zip.• A folder containing force vs. displacement measurements for each experiment (2017-005-Ritter-forces.zip). These are 25 ASCII-files that contain two columns of numerical data: the first column is the displacement in meter; the second column is the corresponding force in newton. The files are named according to the following pattern: <fault length in meter>_<experiment number>.asc• A Matlab script to load the force files and calculate the work. This file is called “plotwork.m” and calls the Matlab function “work.m”, which does the actual calculations. These files have been tested in Matlab version 2012b. The surface deformation data are available upon request.
# 6
Ritter, Malte Christian • Santimano, Tasca • Rosenau, Matthias • Leever, Karen • Oncken, Onno
Abstract: This dataset is supplementary to the article of Ritter et al. (2017). In this article, a new experimental device is presented that facilitates precise measurements of boundary forces and surface deformation at high temporal and spatial resolution. This supplementary dataset contains the measurement data from two experiments carried out in this new experimental device: one experiment of an accretionary critical wedge and one of Riedel-type strike-slip deformation. For a detailed description of the set-up and an analysis of the data, please see Ritter et al. (2017). The data available for either experiment are:• A video showing deformation in top view together with the evolution of boundary force. This file is in AVI-format.• A time-series of 2D vector fields describing the surface deformation. These vector fields were obtained from top-view video images of the respective experiment by means of digital image correlation (DIC). Each vector field is contained in a separate file; the files are consecutively numbered. The vector fields are stored in *.mat-files that can be opened using e.g. the software Matlab or the freely available GNU Octave. They take the form of Matlab structure arrays and are compatible to the PIVmat-toolbox by Moisy (2016) that is freely available. The most important fields of the structure are: x and y, that are vectors spanning a coordinate system, and vx and vy, which are arrays containing the actual vector components in x- and y-direction, respectively.• A file containing the measurements of the boundary force applied to drive deformation. This file is also a *.mat-file, containing a structure F with fields force, velocity and position. These fields are vectors describing the force applied by the indenter, the indenter velocity and the indenter position
# 7
Souloumiac, Pauline • Maillot, Bertrand • Herbert, Justin W. • McBeck, Jessica A. • Cooke, Michele L.
Abstract: The data set includes photos, force measurements, and incremental displacement fields captured in experiment E240 run at the physical modeling laboratory (GEC) at the Université de Cergy-Pontoise. We built the accretionary wedge using a novel sedimentation device [Maillot, 2013] that distributes sand in planar layers and creates homogeneous sandpacks. We include photos of the side of the accretionary wedge in a zipped folder (E240_sideviews). Throughout the experiment, we took a photo every 5 seconds. We include the incremental displacement fields calculated from digital image correlation of sequential photos [Adam et al., 2005; Hoth, 2005] as matlab (.mat) files in a zipped folder (E240_001-062_DIC_MAT), and as .csv files in a zipped folder (E240_001-062_DIC_CSV). The .mat and .csv files are numbered to indicate which sequential photo pairs were used to calculate the displacements. For example, E240_001-062_0001_CSV.csv (and E240_001-062_0001.mat) contain the incremental displacements between photo 001.jpg and 002.jpg. All files are included in a single zip folder (Souloumiac-et-al-2017-supplementary-datasets.zip). The matlab files include the variable arrays x, y, u, v, which are the x and y coordinates (in pixels relative to the upper left corner of the image), and the horizontal (u) and vertical (v) incremental displacement fields (in pixels), respectively. The .csv files contain four columns of data with the x and y coordinates in the first two columns, and the horizontal (u) and vertical (v) displacements in the last two columns. We include force measurements in a text file (E240_force_corrected) with two columns: the first column is the total displacement of the backwall in millimeters at the time that the force measurement was recorded, and the second column is the normal force exerted on the backwall, in Newtons. The force measurements are calculated from measurements of strain gauges mounted on a wall of the sand box (i.e., the backwall) [e.g., Souloumiac et al., 2012].
# 8
Verberne, Berend Antonie • Chen, Jianye • Pennock, Gillian
Abstract: The largest magnitude earthquakes nucleate at depths near the base of the seismogenic zone, near the transition from velocity weakening frictional slip to velocity strengthening ductile flow. However, the mechanisms controlling this transition, and relevant to earthquake nucleation, remain poorly understood. Here we present data from experiments investigating the effect of slip rate on the mechanical properties and microstructure development of simulated calcite fault gouge sheared at ~550°C, close to the transition from (unstable) velocity weakening to (stable) velocity strengthening behaviour, reported by Verberne et al. (2015). We conducted experiments at a constant effective normal stress (σneff) of 50 MPa, as well as σneff-stepping tests employing 20 MPa ≤ σneff ≤ 140 MPa, at constant sliding velocities (v) of 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 µm/s. Samples sheared at v ≥ 1 µm/s showed a microstructure characterized by a single, 30 to 40 μm wide boundary shear, as well as a linear correlation of shear strength (τ) with σneff. Remarkably, electron backscatter diffraction mapping of polygonal shear band grains demonstrated a crystallographic preferred orientation. By contrast, samples sheared at 0.1 µm/s showed a microstructure characterized by homogeneous deformation and plastic flow, as well as a flattening-off of the τ-σneff curve. Our results point to a strain rate dependent frictional-to-viscous transition in simulated calcite fault gouge, and have important implications for the processes controlling earthquake nucleation at the base of the seismogenic zone.
# 9
Niemeijer, Andre
Abstract: The Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is a major plate-bounding fault that accommodates 65–75% of the total relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. Here we present data on the hydrothermal frictional properties of Alpine Fault rocks that surround the principal slip zones (PSZ) of the Alpine Fault and those comprising the PSZ itself. The samples were retrieved from relatively shallow depths during phase 1 of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) at Gaunt Creek. Simulated fault gouges were sheared at temperatures of 25, 150, 300, 450, and 600°C in order to determine the friction coefficient as well as the velocity dependence of friction. Friction remains more or less constant with changes in temperature, but a transition from velocity-strengthening behavior to velocity-weakening behavior occurs at a temperature of T = 150°C. The transition depends on the absolute value of sliding velocity as well as temperature, with the velocity-weakening region restricted to higher velocity for higher temperatures.Friction was substantially lower for low-velocity shearing (V<0.3 μm/s) at 600°C, but no transition to normal stress independence was observed. In the framework of rate-and-state friction, earthquake nucleation is most likely at an intermediate temperature of T = 300°C. The velocity-strengthening nature of the Alpine Fault rocks at higher temperatures may pose a barrier for rupture propagation to deeper levels, limiting the possible depth extent of large earthquakes. Our results highlight the importance of strain rate in controlling frictional behavior under conditions spanning the classical brittle-plastic transition for quartzofeldspathic compositions. The data is provided in a .zip folder with 33 subfolders for 33 samples. Detailed information about the files in these subdfolders as well as sensors used, conversions and data specifications is given in the explanatory file Niemeijer-2017-DFDP-explanation-of-folder-structure-and-file-list.pdf.
# 10
Hunfeld, Luuk • Niemeijer, André • Spiers, Christopher
Abstract: We investigated the frictional properties of simulated fault gouges derived from the main lithologies present in the seismogenic Groningen gas field (NE Netherlands), employing in-situ P-T conditions and varying pore fluid salinity. Direct shear experiments were performed on gouges prepared from the Carboniferous Shale/Siltstone underburden, the Upper Rotliegend Slochteren Sandstone reservoir, the overlying Ten Boer Claystone, and the Basal Zechstein anhydrite-carbonate caprock, at 100 ºC, 40 MPa effective normal stress, and sliding velocities of 0.1-10 µm/s. As pore fluids, we used pure water, 0.5-6.2 M NaCl solutions, and a 6.9 M mixed chloride brine mimicking the formation water. Our results show a mechanical stratigraphy, with a maximum friction coefficient (µ) of ~0.65 for the Basal Zechstein, a minimum of ~0.37 for the Ten Boer claystone, ~0.6 for the reservoir sandstone, ~0.5 for the Carboniferous, and µ-values between the end-members for mixed gouges. Pore fluid salinity had no effect on frictional strength. Most gouges showed velocity-strengthening behavior, with little effect of pore fluid salinity on (a-b). However, Basal Zechstein gouge showed velocity-weakening at low salinities and/or sliding velocities, as did 50:50 mixtures with sandstone gouges, tested with the 6.9 M reservoir brine. From a Rate-and-State-Friction viewpoint, our results imply that faults incorporating Basal Zechstein anhydrite-carbonate material at the top of the reservoir are the most prone to accelerating slip, i.e. have the highest seismogenic potential. The results are equally relevant to other Dutch Rotliegend fields and to similar sequences globally. The data is provided in a .zip folder with 29 subfolders for 29 experiments/samples. Detailed information about the files in these subfolders as well as information on how the data is processed is given in the explanatory file Hunfeld-et-al-2017-Data-Description.pdf
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