237 documents found in 295ms
# 1
Niemeijer, Andre
Abstract: The Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is a major plate-bounding fault that accommodates 65–75% of the total relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. Here we present data on the hydrothermal frictional properties of Alpine Fault rocks that surround the principal slip zones (PSZ) of the Alpine Fault and those comprising the PSZ itself. The samples were retrieved from relatively shallow depths during phase 1 of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) at Gaunt Creek. Simulated fault gouges were sheared at temperatures of 25, 150, 300, 450, and 600°C in order to determine the friction coefficient as well as the velocity dependence of friction. Friction remains more or less constant with changes in temperature, but a transition from velocity-strengthening behavior to velocity-weakening behavior occurs at a temperature of T = 150°C. The transition depends on the absolute value of sliding velocity as well as temperature, with the velocity-weakening region restricted to higher velocity for higher temperatures.Friction was substantially lower for low-velocity shearing (V<0.3 μm/s) at 600°C, but no transition to normal stress independence was observed. In the framework of rate-and-state friction, earthquake nucleation is most likely at an intermediate temperature of T = 300°C. The velocity-strengthening nature of the Alpine Fault rocks at higher temperatures may pose a barrier for rupture propagation to deeper levels, limiting the possible depth extent of large earthquakes. Our results highlight the importance of strain rate in controlling frictional behavior under conditions spanning the classical brittle-plastic transition for quartzofeldspathic compositions. The data is provided in a .zip folder with 33 subfolders for 33 samples. Detailed information about the files in these subdfolders as well as sensors used, conversions and data specifications is given in the explanatory file Niemeijer-2017-DFDP-explanation-of-folder-structure-and-file-list.pdf.
# 2
Williams, Jack • Toy, Virginia • Massiot, Cecile • McNamara, David
Abstract: The orientations and densities of fractures in the foliated hanging-wall of the Alpine Fault provide insights into the role of a mechanical anisotropy in upper crustal deformation, and the extent to which existing models of fault zone structure can be applied to active plate-boundary faults. Three datasets were used to quantify fracture damage at different distances from the Alpine Fault principal slip zones (PSZs): (1) X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of drill-core collected within 25 m of the PSZs during the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project that were reoriented with respect to borehole televiewer (BHTV) images, (2) field measurements from creek sections at <500 m from the PSZs, and (3) CT images of oriented drill-core collected during the Amethyst Hydro Project at distances of ~500-1400 m from the PSZs. Results show that within 160 m of the PSZs in foliated cataclasites and ultramylonites, gouge-filled fractures exhibit a wide range of orientations. At these distances, fractures are interpreted to form at high confining pressures and/or in rocks that have a weak mechanical anisotropy. Conversley, at distances greater than 160 m from the PSZs, fractures are typically open and subparallel to the mylonitic foliation or schistosity, implying that fracturing occurred at low confining pressures and/or in rocks that are mechanically anisotropic. Fracture density is similar across the ~500 m width of the hanging-wall datasets, indicating that the Alpine Fault does not have a typical “damage zone” defined by decreasing fracture density with distance. Instead, we conclude that the ~160 m-wide zone of intensive gouge-filled fractures provides the best estimate for the width of brittle fault-related damage. This estimate is similar to the 60-200 m wide Alpine Fault low-velocity zone detected through fault zone guided waves, indicating that a majority of its brittle damage occurs within its hanging-wall. The data provided here include CT scan 'core logs' for drill-core from both boreholes of the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1A and DFDP-1B) and from the Amethyst Hydro Project (AHP), the code to generate 'unrolled' CT images (which is to be run on imageJ), and an overview image of the integration of unrolled DFDP-1B CT images and BHTV images (DFDP-1B_BHTV-CT-Intergration.pdf). The header for the scan log images indicate 'core run-core section-upper depth-lower depth' for DFDP and 'borehole-core run-core section-upper depth-lower depth' for AHP boreholes. CT scan core logs cover the depth range 67.5-91.1 m in DFDP-1A drill-core and all of DFDP-1B drill-core. A classification of fracture type is given in Williams et al (2016). For DFDP-1 CT scan logs, title of each page labelled by: core run - core section - depth range. For AHP CT scan log, header of each page gives: borehole - core run - core section - depth. These are supplementary material to Williams et al. (submitted), in which a methodology for matching unrolled CT and BHTV images is given in Appendix A.
# 3
Lorenz, Henning • Rosberg, Jan-Erik • Juhlin, Christopher • Bjelm, Leif • Almqvist, Bjarne • (et. al.)
Abstract: The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project focuses on mountain building processes in a major mid-Paleozoic orogen in western Scandinavia and its comparison with modern analogues. The transport and emplacement of subduction-related highgrade continent-ocean transition (COT) complexes onto the Baltoscandian platform and their influence on the underlying allochthons and basement will be studied in a section provided by two fully cored 2.5 km deep drill holes. This operational report concerns the first drill hole, COSC-1 (ICDP 5054-1-A), drilled from early May to late August 2014.COSC-1 is located in the vicinity of the abandoned Fröå mine, close to the town of Åre in Jämtland, Sweden and was planned to sample a thick section of the Seve Nappe and to penetrate its basal thrust zone into the underlying lower grade metamorphosed allochthon. Despite substantial technical problems, the drill hole reached 2495.8 m driller's depth and nearly 100 % core recovery was achieved. Surprising was the homogeneity of the Seve Nappe rocks, the unexpected thickness of its basal thrust zone (> 500 m) and that the drill hole, therefore, did not penetrate the bottom of the thrust zone. However, lower grade metasedimentary rocks were encountered in the lowermost part of the drill hole together with tens of metres thick mylonites that are, unexpectedly, rich in large garnets.The drill core was documented on-site and XRF scanned off site. During various stages of the drilling, the borehole was documented by comprehensive downhole logging. This operational report provides an overview over the COSC-1 operations from drilling preparations to the sampling party and describes the available datasets and sample material.
# 4
Hierold, Johannes • Körting, Friederike • Kollaske, Tina • Rogass, Christian • Harms, Ulrich
Abstract: The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) performed a dual-phase scientific drilling project to investigate mountain-building processes called Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC). The borehole COSC-1 was drilled through the Lower Seve Nappe, as the first of two 2.5 km deep drill holes close to Åre, central Sweden. The recovered rocks comprise a 1650 m thick suite of high grade gneisses and amphibolites with clear Seve Nappe affinities, while the lower 850 m comprise rather homogenous mylonitic gneisses with interfingered K-rich phyllonite bands of cm to several m size and some intercalated amphibolites. The different lithologies all crosscut the core in a subhorizontal direction with foliation of gneisses and phyllonites in the same direction. Albite and garnet porphyroblasts with pressure shadows show syn-deformational growth and the same sub-horizontal alignment. The focus of this study was to detect chemical and mineralogical differences in mylonitic and host rocks and to relate these differences to either metasomatism and deformation or inherited source rock variance. Another goal of this work is to compare chemical core scanning instruments. For this purpose two different X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and hyperspectral imaging served to measure seven samples from the lower 850 m of the COSC-1 core. This data publication comprises the datasets gained in the course of this study. The metadata (OF WHAT?) will be presented in an additional file including XRF data from the Avaatech XRF core scanner in a txt.file as well as datasets of the other used devices in original file formats.
# 5
KTB, WG Geochemistry
Abstract: Infrared-Spectrometry on Cutting Samples of the KTB Main Hole (Drill Section HB1i), 8732-9101 m.
# 6
KTB, WG Geochemistry
Abstract: Infrared-Spectrometry on Cutting Samples of the KTB Main Hole (Drill Section HB1h), 7392-8728 m.
# 7
KTB, WG Geochemistry
Abstract: Infrared-Spectrometry on Cutting Samples of the KTB Main Hole (Drill Section HB1g), 7220-8322 m.
# 8
KTB, WG Geochemistry
Abstract: Infrared-Spectrometry on Cutting Samples of the KTB Main Hole (Drill Section HB1d), 6770-7218 m.
# 9
KTB, WG Geochemistry
Abstract: Infrared-Spectrometry on Cutting Samples of the KTB Main Hole (Drill Section HB1a), 5596-6760 m.
# 10
KTB, WG Geochemistry
Abstract: Infrared-Spectrometry on Cutting Samples of the KTB Main Hole (Drill Section HB1), 7-5590 m.
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